United Bulletin
of interns of groups 1, 2, 3 and 4



Argish of Indigenous Peoples of the Krasnoyarsk Region!

Possible Variants of Solution of Social Problems In National Village of Farkovo, Turukhansk District, Krasnoyarsk Region

A Letter From The Keto Elder Woman

Indigenous People of Turukhansk

Sustainable Development and Landuse


A word "argish" for each of 45 indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East of Russia means "to move, travel from one place of residence to another" by virtue of various circumstances: natural, social, economic, e.g. because of limited natural resources, which do not allow the tribe, community to survive.

In modern reality this word has obtained more general, than just ordinary meaning, we understand its meaning as a category of cultural, moral, philosophic and even of political levels. We are too small-numbered to survive following to our centuries-old but already out of date unwritten laws.

Renewal is needed, re-comprehension of our existence. For mankind becoming aware of value of born by nature cultures of indigenous folks it is necessary to learn more, hoping for understanding and support of new civilization and while preserving ancient and unique knowledge of our peoples.

Namely therefore we
- "argish" to new historic development, multiplying knowledge of our ancestors with modern practices of survival in extreme conditions, acquire experience of movement with minimal loss from the past to the future;
- join to process of development of indigenous peoples in cooperation with bodies of state power and self-governance for practical implementation of the Concept of state national policy of Russia;
- teach ourselves to respect us as a nation, to have a faith in ourselves as personalities with our natural rights!

Today our "argish" is not just familiarization with juridical norms, fixed in the Constitution, Russian legislation, international legal documents, but also realization of our deserved place on the Planet Earth as guardians of the Mother-Nature! We attempt to convince society that "…every people inhabiting our country are given by God. As air, land and skies. And loss of each even of small-numbered - irreplaceable loss for all mankind!"

We are citizens of Russia first of all and we support our President V.V. Putin: "We all together want our country - Russia to be a powerful, great and mighty nation". We do not want great upheavals; we need strong by spirit and mind Russia, so by right of a Human one can be proud of being namely its citizen!

Nadezhda Novik
Keto, Director,
Krasnoyarsk Regional Indigenous
Information Center "Argish"
Russia, Siberia, Krasnoyarsk,
March 2004



Very few know that on the territory of our krai (region) the Selkups, one of the small-numbered northern people live. In the Turukhansk raion (district) it is one of the northern nations which destiny raises much concern about. Mostly they inhabit the village of Farkovo. They call themselves as "forest people". Especially those who permanently live in the forests. They come to the village very rarely only to have new provisions. Therefore they more than others have problems with applying for pension in required time, subsidy for children and etc. Officially majority of them are unemployed. But unemployment welfare they get for different reasons. Production they have (fish, fur, meat of reindeer and elk) usually take place in autumn - winter period of year. In autumn they earn for life gathering different wild berries and of course fishing. Spring and summer are not lucky time for earning any money. This is a problem for all "forest people"!

What could be ways of possible solution of jobless in summer time?
To create national enterprises for drying and smoking prepared and kept in refrigerators meat and fish, sewing ateliers and artists' handcrafts factories for making souvenirs, who carve wood, decorate with beads, make fur products, bark souvenirs, construct houses with brigades… All these are occupation and substantial help for the Selkup families. This is also an incentive to realize talents of gifted representatives of indigenous people, e.g. of Kusamin Ivan, Bezrukikh Vitaly, Arkadieva Olga Viktorovna and others.

Who should about solution of these problems first of all?
Of course, the state represented by our authorities of local self-governance - selsoviets (village councils). In village only they are able to advance and finance these civil initiatives. Let it be just "point" supports for first time, but it is needed to help people bring back their wish to work! We should return to a man a belief in himself! This could eliminate indigenous communities' poverty.

It is also expected that people themselves should not sit and wait when their families are in need. One can create ideas and not undertake any efforts to make it come true. Only with help of joint work of authorities and ordinary man we can develop and make things come implemented in practice. Initiators of ideas have to refer to raion for receiving help for their social and economic plans of development of the village and even to krai: to deputies, representatives of legislative power in the village, raion, krai and officials of executive power. But one has to accumulate great patience for breaking through and making ideas come to life.

"Forest people" have specific problems. Not ordinary as all people have in the village, for instance, payments for communal services (e.g. electricity). We suppose they should not pay for electricity if they live all wintertime in taiga. But payment bills for the whole period come to their families. The biggest problem of "forest people" is that when they return to the village they have no houses to stay on. Some of them possess half destroyed houses where impossible to live even in summer time. But they have children; usually these are many children families. In such conditions could they be brought physically and morally healthy and become worthy citizens? It is first of all matter of care of local authorities. The problems can be solved by jobless hunters and fishermen in spring and autumn times. Normal conditions have to be created for them to construct houses (reasonable and in time paid salaries, construction materials, and attention of authorities).

In Farkovo there are few families which children are handicapped; it is a big problem not only for indigenous communities but for all. Not everybody of the Turukansk raion knows that there is a specialized program for support of the handicapped children. We can advise them to pay attention to family support programs, also for handicapped children. Whether seven years old Raya Kusamina will have a wheeled chair or not depends on wish of both - parents and raion department for social protection of population. Our interns have prepared an article about programs of social support for such children under the title of the region level program. All our recommendations articles will be published through raion's Association of indigenous small-numbered people of the North (President O.L. Sinnikova) in "Word of Peoples of the North" (Light Tower of the North). Destiny of Polina Besrukikh also depends on her mother, parents and people responsible for social programs in our raion.

One more problem - a pain of all national villages - alcohol! From our point of view vodka business is a real terrorism against indigenous peoples of the North! If people were busy with jobs, paid attention of chairman of selsoviet, deputies of all levels this problem would be decreased in 50%. Support of the Orthodox Church would be also relevant here. Very possibly. Because there are a lot of outside origin religious sects over here (in villages of Bor and Kellog). Indigenous communities' cultures severely hurt. Russia has always been of the Orthodox Christian belief, on which the spirit of Russian peoples is based, no matter of what ethnic background they are!

Nikolai Kusamin, S
Anna Kukushkina
, Selkup



"… Why they forbid me to hunt, fish, gather cranberries,
there where my brothers were born,
where my grandpa shot a wandering bear,
which kept all our homes thrilled all winter along?
On those lands my clan has always lived.
This is a hunting land of an outsider man now.
I will complain to the United Nations on such injustice!"
(A Keto hunter from the Turukhansk district)

For my long life I have often listened to such talks of my counterparts on the river Elogui, when with sticks we were fishing small eels, or gathered cranberries in taiga by autumns. I do not know why but a wise Russian fairytale about wooden and ice houses of a hare and a fox comes always to my mind. I did not know how to answer not to hurt them and to help them somehow to learn answers to all complains. To my four daughters I could answer saying that they have to study, study and study. Now I give a piece of advice to you also: learn to protect yourselves, your rights to a life on lands of your ancestors.

Life has never been without obstacles. It is a dark forest. As in a forest you can easily be lost, and forget which trail to go. In childhood the deer's trails saved us: they always lead to chums. Now we have nor chums neither deer… People of the Keto, just fewer of them left. Those who speak in our language about a hundred left. Your chum - it is knowledge! Speak about us to people wishing by heart to learn and take culture of our peoples, who made severe region of earth - North their homes.

Today one may and have to learn to live again, but much was lost. The past with all its joy and unhappiness has gone anyway. Sometimes it comes back as a sorrow, disobedience, but sometimes as intention not to solve problems wisely and peacefully. But one should be able to forgive. But our society also needs to learn really civilized relations, where respect to the elder generations and care for children will find their place. Nobody will do our work for us.

Remember: useful information - not secret, but it makes a life of a man more interesting, jolly and fuller. A man without it is like a boat on land. Knowledge is necessary to be a worthy partner in conversations with life. Teach yourselves to live, share your knowledge with counterparts in everyday life, and keep traditions and customs of your peoples on earth which is always called by us Home. Keep your human dignity! Do not forget to thank you each other, remember, that nether less I HAVE REMAINED A MAN, who lives in good relations with people of different believes and nationalities. To be sure of this, a simple Keto prayer will help you:

Thank you, Mother Nature, for giving children to people!
Sun that warms our land after a long winter!
River that gives us to drink pure water and enjoys with fish!
Moon that lights a road for hunter in taiga!
Wind that expels wicked spirits away and brings good news!
Fire that with its warmth and jolly dance gathers family around fireplace!
Doors of our House are always open for kind people!
Our mind and heart are always open for friendship!

Klavdia Kharlampievna Baldina,
Keto, 70 years old,
Village of Kellog,
Turukhansk district
Krasnoyarsk region



To question about sustainable development and traditional land use of the Turukhansk North because interns of the first group has come namely from there.

Turukhansk district - area of extreme North, which occupies exclusive position in administrative-territorial system of the Krasnoyarsk krai: this is its most northern district. District center, village of Turukhansk is located from Krasnoyarsk in distance of 1100 ế and 1440 ế along river of Enisei. 28 its settlements in average are in distance of 400 ế from Turukhansk and 7 of them are located on the inflows of Enisei.

General length of water and land roads to settlements makes 1860 ế, along side small rivers - 1060 ế. Main rivers are inflows of Enisei: Podkamennaya Tunguska, Elogui, Nizhnaya Tunguska, Turuhan, Kureika. Duration of navigation along Enisei on the district territory is about 4 months, along inflows - from 7 to 20 days because of sand banks. There are no railway or motor roads. Sveltogorsk, a village of town type and administratively subordinated to it Igarka village are located in the area of the district.

Total area of the district is 214 thousand square ế. Not big population (about 13 thousand people) without Svetlogorsk determinates low density of population on 1 sq. km. - 0,057man. For 28 settlements this makes an urgent problem for transport accessibility to provide even minimal conditions of vital activities of the district population. Transportation is fulfilled by small aviation (helicopters available for 9 to 12 months) and water transportation (4 months per year). Travel from village of Kellog to district center Turukhansk makes 1500 rubles, from Turukhansk to Krasnoyarsk - 3000 rubles. Total amount for two way travel makes up 9000 rubles. Average local salary is 3000 rubles.

In 15 from 28 settlements representatives of indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North: the Ketos (816), the Selkoops (369) and the Evenkis (188), totally 1373 people, live (11.08% from the district population). The Evenkis inhabit the most discomfort zone of northern part of the district, the Ketos and the Selkoops live in extremely discomfort zone of middle and southern parts of the district (border in latitude 64 North). These are their natural habitat.

Developing of the district started at the beginning of XVII century because of its richest biological resources, due to that many-centuries history and culture of aborigine people of the district has been built. Today they have returned to their natural economies: fishery, fur-trade, berry gathering and deer-raising, which has been preserved after 75-year Soviet period by the Evenki people only.

These are numbers which can tell about state of health of the indigenous of the location. Average lifetime makes 61 ages; aborigines' life expectancy is - 39 years, whose only 6,3% representatives live till pension time. Main reason is very low social level of life and alcohol dependence, which causes great number of accidents and suicides. Diseases of respiration organs, blood circulation and malignant neoplasm have increased recently.

Capable to work aborigines make 51%, which only 13% are officially registered as unemployed. But factually the unemployed are 3-4 times more, as majority of people of remote settlements being jobless have never been registered officially as unemployed.

Lyubov Baldina, Keto


Article "Indigenous Issue", Moscow News, Krasnoyarsk region ¹43 dated 4-10.11.2003

Aborigines of the Krasnoyarsk North may gain right of property to lands where they hunt, fish and breed deer. In spite of that Gosduma (Russian Parliament) does not want to give fast areas to the indigenous communities of the Russian North, Zaksobranie (Regional Legislative Council) of the Krasnoyarsk krai intends to assign territories of traditional landuse to tribal communities.

Commission on the North and indigenous small-numbered people has introduced for the first reading a draft law "On lands of traditional landuse of the indigenous small-numbered people of the North of the Krasnoyarsk krai". If it is passed, authorities will recommend bodies of self-governance to define order of establishing borders of such territories.

At the same time representatives of aborigines proposed to insert amendment: "Industrial development of territories belonging to the indigenous people, possible from their agreement" to another law "On basis of right guarantees of the indigenous small-numbered people of the North of the Krasnoyarsk krai". However last summer deputies rejected it.

In reality such questions are solved without background glance at imperfect legislation. It is not necessary for and in favor of industry which is conquering the North. For instance, recently American oil industry workers have left the Enisei region. On the Sym River the American flag was raised already 10 years ago. Founded in Texas, Symskaya Exploration, Inc. obtained a license for 25 years, but here the American pathfinders came across the same civilized problems as their forefathers' while conquering prairies. Not standing this, in May the Americans dismissed this license.

At the same time the indigenous residents of Sym village (few tens of them) opposed a proposal of the region administration on establishing a Nature Parks with area of 2.5 million hectors. Opinion of the Evenki and the Keto traditionally making a living in these lands was supported by regional deputies promising to bring this case till Genprokuratura (Office of Public Procurator) if aborigines will be oppressed.

Legal courtliness of regional parliaments may lead to the fact that e.g. rights of the Evenkis in the Krasnoyarsk region will differ greatly from rights of the Evenkis in the Evenkiyskiy autonomous okrug (district). There, according to officials of the Association of the indigenous small-numbered people of the North, Siberia and Far East, the notion "a subject of traditional landuse" is interpreted so loosely that for different juridical organizations opportunities appear to obtain lands as property where aborigines have lived and hunted for many centuries. According to words of Genadiy Druzhinin, a deputy of Gosduma from Evenkia, officials may refuse even indigenous communities to give a license for hunting.

Comments of "Argish" center interns on the article

Firstly, we have never seen such a draft law.
Secondly, even in period of Decade of the Indigenous People of the World, declared by the UN in December of 1994, Russia still remains an only Arctic country which has not regulated its legislation in sphere of nature, land use and environment protection with the indigenous small-numbered people and old residents of the North.
Modern policy of bodies of state power regarding the indigenous people of the North still defined by directions of the Soviet times when all kinds and forms of their activities were considered as "archaic remains" and practicing such activities collectives - as the most backward and conservative groups of population of the country.

Much time is needed (especially very small numbered people have no time whose unique culture is on edge of disappearance), to convince society that a way of life of our ancestors is a special kind of human activity, which
- actively contributes to conservation of integrity of ecosystems and sustains level of biodiversity of the Earth and even in view of this it is a necessary component of process for sustainable development in any country;
- represents by itself a basis for national cultures of all peoples and cultural diversity of the planet;
- is a form and condition for existence of mentality and spiritual life of each people, in its serious extent defines depth and diversity of spiritual search of all mankind.

Smirnova Vera, Keto
Baldina Irina,
Ryazatzev Vadim,


¹ 5 - 2005


The mood of the bulletin. Siberia is reviving

We are part of human community

The second Decade of Indigenous Peoples of the World continues

We are to live and work in the North

History and culture of Siberia

Spiritual Heritage

You asked? We answer

It is possible to live in taiga. But you should not only trust it. It can be insidious and spiteful. It doesn't change its laws: a strong animal gets food with power, a cunning one with keenness of wit, and a careful one doesn't get into paws of the strong. Everybody living in taiga has his own wit and experience. But for all of them it is their native place. Because here is their home, their territory. A man should always remember: he came on their native lands. Taiga can be burned, the forest can be cut down, but you cannot conquer it!

Old Yenuka

He who lives embracing the nature is kinder in soul and better.

Victor Astafyev

They all were called Siberians with pleasure,
Though they were different in language,
Shape of eyes and faces measures.

A. Tvardovsky


Siberia Is Reviving?

The spring is not hurrying to the North. All March there are still frosts and snowstorms raging. Only a little more sunlight appears than usual. But we, north people, know exactly - it has come: the spring envoys - huge icicles are persistently reminding: here it is, only has strayed a little in Turukhan snowdifts! Soon, very soon the spring sun will melt the snow, the birds will twitter and the springs will ripple. Near every tree (first, near the white birches, as the sun comes through their bare thin branches more easily to the snow heaps) the ground spots, thawed patches, will darken. And Mother-Nature will rejoice at the long-awaited spring, warmth precious to the hearts, the hot sun, the bright light...
Unexpectedly I remembered a family of bears, which, as my mother said, had settled long ago on the lands of our ancestors - hunters. The first and the latter took from taiga only as much as it was necessary for their families. The man and the animal never touched each other, and as a piece of the single whole completed the nature in this part of taiga land. Because they had decided once they have enough space for growing their generations of men and bears. Wisdom of "Grandfather" had always been honoured by Ketos. Till the 70th they had been celebrating regular Bear's rituals after hunting on it, with respect seeing the bear off to his last way.
If spring constantly, without changing its tradition, comes after winter frosts to gladden a man, the frost of the current events in the soul of a man is not always gone away. The only thing he wants - to feel stable. Disunions and unions make a simple person change the rules of his life and constantly wait... Wait for sudden and destroying changes. They are like a fire: the greatest part of the plans for the future burns away. We have not let the "monetization" in the region but nevertheless there is a feeling of discomfort in the solving social issues of invalids, veteran workers, indigenous peoples of the North.
The man is awfully tired of reforms - destroying to the ground and rebuilding his home from the ash. Especially in the North, in some small taiga village forgotten by the God and the authorities, with raging irresponsibility, hard drinking, fear and poverty. There is no place for hope in aboriginal villages in spite of existance of different supporting programmes. They only exist (for a year or a quarter), but don't live and develop from year to year.
The arguments on integration the regions are convicing. Politicians have always been good at "giving" sovereignties and "collecting" lands. Here the local elections to the executive, representative authorities are coming. The North people are promised, "Everything will be OK"... But the man stays alone and comes back to his constant life companions: small wages or its absence (for deer-breeders, for example) because of unemployment constantly residing here, unreasonably high housing tariffs, uneducated kids, poor health and problems with elderly parents... Looking back in the past he often sees a desert. To control all the bad emotions, to mobilize all the spiritual and intellectual forces for surviving is not feasible for everyone. It is twice harder to do if the belief is lost. If love to the life is lost.
Hope, Belief and Love and spiritual heritage together with them are not too late to regenerate and save. The North, Siberia have always been famous for their spirituality, which together with beauty, as people say, can save the world. At least, we can save the rest of the Siberian men's souls. Only a place in the life and a bit of attention (not formal, for the sake of the state programme implementation) is needed for a simple man living in conditions (climatic, communication, housing...) far from normal. When the North indigenous people have informational "blowhole" or their representatives in the region, they already feel good. Now they are remembered only during the elections, then forgotten at all.
In a new beautiful regional newspaper "Our Krasnoyarsk Territory" Keto people were remembered and called "the Bible people", "Enigmatic people. Disappearing people. Maybe the most mysterious people of Siberia. Their historical trace is lost in the dusky haze of far millenniums. Ketos represent the unique North Yenisei people, they live in some villages of Turukhansk Region. They are the native inhabitants of this North part of Krasnoyarsk Territory. We went to the capital of Ketos - Kellog village." (Yulia Vladimirova, #2, 10-24 February 2005). Unique, disappearing people... And in the regional programme "Peoples of the North" for 2005 there is no article supporting and saving the culture going away. In the federal programme there is a line about disappearing peoples of Russia though, but constructing of Ethnic Centre started in 2000 cannot be finished in 2005. Unfortunately, there is no information about the lowest standards of living of the aboriginals in the reports of the Commissioner on the Rights of People in Krasnoyarsk Territory for 2003, 2004.
I want to believe that "Krasnoyarsk Territory can become the locomotive which will draw other regions", that we all will be "responsible for our elders", that "all the ways are open for our youth", that the "Siberian revival" has started at last. It is embarrassing to realize that we have such a big amount of oil and gas and deliver fuel and lubricants to our territories at the highest prices, and have the highest tariffs for everything, and are considered the donated regions, hangers-on of the State. If we could only know that the reform is the last. We will not stand another. For now we will say "Yes!" at the referendum on 17 April and become real participants, contemporaries of an important developing poject - building new Krasnoyarsk Territory for the sake of the Man, for the future deserving a Russian citizen.



Our Centre is the knowledge on our rights and possibilities
Vyacheslav Krasnopeyev: "The purpose of such centres as "Argish" is, in my opinion, acknowledge with human rights. Our people don't have this knowledge. On the studies we realized that only few people look up in the Fundamental Law of Russia, but we must know it not to be offended. I don't say about other laws regulating life of a man. Now I know at least my own rights and ways to protect them. I'm sure that it's me - the citizen - the bearer of the authority which is said in the Constitution, that's why I have the right to demand from the State implementation of the regulations declared by it."
Vasily Bushmin: "To protect the rights independently in a certain situation, a man needs some minimum of common knowledge about rights and legal system. He wants to be sure in any case, as we often face the officials' bureucratic delays, the militia's groundless claims, lack of attention of the justice, violations of employers... In the North we must know the laws, especially when we need their help. A lot depend on us, simple people, in development the legal culture in our own region first. Russia consists of regions and cities: the stronger they are, the stronger the country is."
Luda Davinduk: "On the internment I knew for the first time about international and national acts on rights of children, indigenous peoples. My family lives in tundra. We are nomad people of Evenks from Sovrechka village. Not far from our place big reserves of oil and gas were found. Our people hope for Vankor as for the future of the region. I want to be sure that Vankor is a safe future for our deer-breeders. But there is no regional law for deer-breeders, so it is difficult to say what is waiting for my family, for our deers. If Russia ratified the International Labour Organization Convention 169 I would be more sure for my nomad people."
Inna Davinduk: "I have wanted to study human rights for a long time, but did not have possibility. As only I learned that we would have internment on this subject for a month and a half in our region I put my name down for it immediately. Many representatives of Evenks from deer-breeders' families wished to study there. Half of the group are Evenks from Sovrechka.
I was greatly impressed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. We learned it in details during our studies. A serious document! But I think, indigenous peoples should be spoken about loudly, with all the power. Otherwise it will be late. Mankind will not win anything if it loses such humane peoples. Only these people can prompt that without nature, her purity and diversity a man cannot survive. Representatives of peoples of the planet, who continue to live in accordance with laws of the nature in the century of high technologies, must say their word themselves. I've understood the importance of civil society and each individual. We are an essential and full value part of society. Indigenous peoples are a barometer of relations between nature and a man. For us a forest, a tundra, a river, a deer, the clean sky, white snow... - is the same essential right as the right to live.
In the Center we knew pleasant enthusiastic people. Honour and dignity for a small team of "Argish" interns are not empty words. They are actions. I will certainly share what I've learned with relatives in the community. I hope the Declaration of Indigenous Peoples of the World will be accepted during this Decade of Indigenous Peoples of the World proclamed by UN from 2005."
Ksenia Nemchina: "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was accepted by the State on 10 December, 1948. A short time after the War terrifying by the losts of people from different countries. Then this document was just in time. But now it has become a bit out of date and needs renovation. What happened to the USSR has never happened to any country of the world. There have been a huge amount of violations of human rights after destroying this State into the Commonwealth of Independent States. Till now these 20-30 rules, limiting the power of the majority over an individual - the smallest and natural minority, are important. Because this minority is unique. The whole states and structures created there exist for a man. Only for a man executive, legislative and judicial powers, independent from each other, must work. But more often a man is humiliated. A country cannot be called a legal state when the law doesn't work, when there is no equality in front of it. If the law is not strong, the power of money and connections have lived, is living and will live. I am an orphan, but a Russian citizen and patriot. I want my country to be the best. Then the youth will need not to renew science, culture, agriculture, industry, but to continue the worthy work of the fathers and not to envy the "new Russians"."
Maria Saigotina: "On the first studies I could not even understand what "human rights" are. Only after learning the Universal Declaration with two pacts (political and economical 1966) comprising the Bill of Human Rights, I understood why just these documents are the standards for developing all the civilized countries. The thing that a special structure on indigenous peoples (Permanent Forum) works in the UN was a news not only for me. So we are not alone and can communicate with all the world? Informational gap in the problems of peoples with similar cultures was filled with such a big amount of material that at first I felt headache. But it is useful to know. Legal knowledge is needed for life of a hunter, and a deer-breeder and a scientist. Such centres unite men not indifferent to their peoples. We had a lot of meetings with interesting specialists. There are many problems, and it's impossible to solve them at once. Maybe some day indigenous peoples will live without them?"

The common conclusion of the interns which can be useful for the readers

1. Answering the question of our fellow-countrymen what "human rights" are, we talk about values of civil society which lives with humanism, human dignity, liberty, equality of rights, solidarity, fairness. Humanism admits self-value of each individual; human dignity is a respect to a person because it is significant for the society as a representative of the genus Homo; without liberty self-determination of an individual thinking and acting without any pressure from "above" is impossible; balance of people's interests, their equality in front of the law independently on the social status means equality of rights; solidarity implies mutual sympathy, mutual understanding of each other when you need help and mutual respect of rights; we understand fairness as harmony, based on kindness, of relations between a person and a group of people for the sake of wholeness and development of all the society.
2. But there are no rights without duties, and vice versa. The liberty of one finishes where the liberty of another starts, mutual restrictions of liberties (duties) are the condition for equal liberty of everybody. To fulfil obligations means: RESPECT RIGHTS OF OTHERS, DON'T INFRINGE ON RIGHTS OF OTHERS, DON'T HINDER FULFILMENT OF THE RIGHTS BY OTHERS, HELP AND PROTECT EACH OTHER FROM THE THIRD PERSON WHO TRIES TO DEPRIVE SOMEBODY OF HIS RIGHTS. Only in this case we have the chance for real existance of our own rights.
3. In the laws we often see the phrase "guarantees of human and citizens' rights". This is a combination of favourable conditions and means, providing rights fulfilment. The conditions implicate surroundings, state system and order of society which favour the existance of rights. This is democracy, respect to and following the Constitution, this is a real legal and social state, this is legal culture and civic-minded people. The means implicate social instruments and technologies used skillfully and directly for people's surroundings and behaviour with the purpose to secure the rights (economical, political, ideological, juridical).
4. We should know: human rights infringement and protection imply behaviour and actions resulting into prejudice of a person's weal or conditions obstructing the use of his rights. In the centre here is a man whose rights are infringed. Human rights protection is a system of securing a right in common sence and reinstatement of voilated rights through juridical or other social mechanisms allowed by the law. Mechanisms of human rights protection are self-protection, remedial and other judicial and non-judicial state bodies, as well as international interstate and non-governmental structures. We told about some of them in previous bulletins.



International Labour Organization (ILO) - one of the UN organizations
I found the information of the "CULTURAL SURVIVAL VOICES" newspaper (autumn 2004, part 3, issue 2) very useful by contents and understandable for our indigenous peoples by language of narration. Here are some of the materials.
How can ILO help indigenous peoples?
This is a special affiliated to UNO organization, consisting not only of governments, but of workers and employees. It supports international labour standards and presents the wide range of mechanisms of labour and human rights protection. The most important ILO's states concerning indigenous peoples are contained in Conventions 169 and 107.
What is the ILO Convention 169?
The ILO Convention 169 is an agreement protecting rights of indigenous peoples. In accordance with the Convention all the projects related to indigenous peoples' interests and their lands should be planned with participation of representatives of indigenous peoples.
How does the ILO Convention 169 work?
The ILO Convention169 is a treaty compulsory to execute by all the states which ratified it. If your rights are infringed, you can apply to a labour protecting or workers' rights protecting organization asking them to hand in an application on your name to the ILO.
What is the ILO Convention 107?
The ILO Convention 107 is the previous version of the ILO Convention 169 working in some countries. The ILO Convention 107 declares that indigenous peoples should have the same rights and possibilities as all the other citizens of the country.
How can the ILO Convention 169 help me?
If a country has retified the ILO Convention 107, but has not retified the ILO Convention 169, you can hand in an application on violation human rights in the order stated by the ILO Convention 169.


Ratify the ILO Convention 169!

This is the most progressive international legal document which can really help indigenous and tribal peoples of 21st century of independent states. The Convention can cope with the problem of putting in accordance national legislation and effective work of the programmes of social-economical and cultural development of indigenous peoples of Russia. Is Russia really weaker than Bolivia, Colombia, Mexico, which ratified the Convention long ago?
There are advantages of realization of the Convention in Russia. This is Article 69 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Then: "empty" unworking laws won't be issued any more, as the Convention determines certain beneficiaries of certain rights, cadastre of territories of traditional nature management, types of use of natural resources and forms of ownership. And if our laws will not correspond the international standards, then the State has to report on the violated rights of indigenous peoples.
Next: the ratified Convention gives some extra possibilities to authority bodies against plunder and unskilful exploitation of natural resources on huge territories, including the territories of indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East of Russia, living in harmony with nature. Why? Because the central issue of the Convention is the RESPONSIBILITY of federal authority bodies for saving natural resources as a base of system of traditional life maintenance and so of existance of ethnical lifestyle in whole. Moreover, the Convention provides these peoples with the RIGHTS of the corresponding resources.
And the last argument for the ratification of the Convention. Russia is a member of International Indigenous Peoples Development Fund as well as the other countries having ratified it. This means that it will be possible to use money of the Fund for realization of programmes of development of indigenous peoples and the territories of their living and economy. This is a positive point for attracting some additional investments on priveleged conditions for development uncomfortable North zones of Russia.
So, it is necessary to create a mechanism of active consultations with representatives of indigenous peoples for soonest ratification of the Convention. This means the necessity to form, in addition to the state system of authorities, independent representative structures of indigenous peoples with corresponding powers. Here we need some preliminary thorough work on creating special procedures allowing these peoples to participate in making decisions on all levels in elective and administrative bodies. Implementation of the Convention regulations will allow the indigenous peoples, after many years of moral and physical shock, to survive not only by assimilating, but by protecting the rights to save their own unique lifestyle, culture and traditions. As one of French lawyers said, "You can compare rights and liberties with an open window, you needn't go out of it, but you will breathe easier." The Ratification of the ILO Convention 169 is like this "window" for indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East of Russia.


Vadim Ryazantsev
Student of the Faculty of Law of Krasnoyarsk Agrarian University

Measures of social support established by the law of Krasnoyarsk Territory

(categories, source and measures of social support)
1. Veteran workers (the category is determined in accordance with Article 7 of Federal Law "About Veterans").
Law of Krasnoyarsk Territory "About Measures of Social Support of Veterans" from 10.12.2004 #12-2703, "Krasnoyarsky Rabochy" 31.12.2004 #52, "Vedomosty" 10.01.2005 #1 (44)
Law of Krasnoyarsk Territory "About Social Support of Population for Housing and Municipal Services Payment" from 17.12.2004 #13-2804, "Vedomosty" 28.12.2004 #36 (41)

1) Free service in polyclinics, where the noted persons were registered during the period of their work, medical service in accordance with regional programme of state guarantees of free medical service for RF citizens;
2) money compensation in amount of 50% of telephone, radio and collective television antenna rental fee;
3) free travel by all city transport (except taxi);
4) free travel by suburban public auto transport (except taxi), and if they don't exist on interurban routes (within the region);
5) 50% payment of cost of railway and water transport of suburban travel during the seasonal tariffs;
6) free return travel once a year within Krasnoyarsk Territory by public auto transport (except taxi) on interurban routes (regional, or if they are absent interregional, interrepublican);
7) subsidies in amount 50% of housing payment within social norm of living space, established by regional law, and 50% of housing services costs within the social norm of living space, established by regional law, and/or standards of housing services consuming, established by local self-government institutions.

2. Disabled members of veteral worker's family, living together with him, under his maintenance or receiving from him help, which is constant and the main source of means of existence for them.
Law of Krasnoyarsk Territory "About Social Support of Population for Housing and Municipal Services Payment" from 17.12.2004 #13-2804, "Vedomosty" 28.12.2004, #36 (41)
Subsidies in amount of 50% of housing payment within the social norm of living space, established by regional law.

3. Veteran workers of the region (60 year-old men and older with seniority not less than 40 years; 55 year-old women and older with seniority not less than 35 years).
Law of Krasnoyarsk Territory "About Measures of Social Support of Veterans" from 10.12.2004 #12-2703, "Krasnoyarsky Rabochy" 31.12.2004 #52
Law of Krasnoyarsk Territory "About Social Support of Population for Housing and Municipal Services Payment" from 17.12.2004 #13-2804.

1) 50% of housing payment within the socail norm of living space, established by regional law (in force since 01.07.05);
2) 50% of housing services cost within the social norm of living space, established by regional law, and/or standards of housing services consuming, established by local self-government institutions (in force since 01.07.05);
3) money compensation in amount of 50% of rental fee for radio and telephone.

4. People working and residing in villages, workers' villages for whom the following institutions are the main place of work. Managers, psychologists, sociologists, social workers, pedagogues, doctors, pharmacists, middle medical and pharmaceutical workers of regional state and municipal public health service institutions, educational and social service institutions. Managers and specialists of regional state and municipal institutions of culture and art.
Law of Krasnoyarsk Territory "About Social Support of Population for Housing and Municipal Services Payment" from 17.12.2004 #13-2804.
1) Subsidy in amount of 100% of housing payment within the social norm, established by regional law;
2) subsidy in amount of 100% of power supply and heating costs, including purchase and delivery of solid fuel for stove heating, within the social norm of living space, established by regional law, and/or standards of housing services consuming, established by local self-government institutions.

5. A consort not remarried, children under 18, children under 23 studying full-time, children after 18, who became disabled before 18, of servicemen, rank-of-file and commanding staff people of internal affairs authorities and state security authorities, employees of criminal executive system of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation, perished (died) on duty in armed conflict in the Chechnia Republic or in counter-terrorist operations on the territory of North-Caucasus Region since August 1999.
Law of Krasnoyarsk Territory "About Social Support of Population for Housing and Municipal Services Payment" from 17.12.2004 #13-2804.
In addition to the measures of social support, provided by the Federal Laws "About Veterans", "About Status of Servicemen", the subsidies are given in the following amounts:
1) 50% of housing payment;
2) 50% of housing services costs within the social norms of living space, established by the regional law, and/or standards of housing services consuming, established by local self-government institutions.

6. Parents living alone, couples of parents living separetly of servicemen, rank-of-file and commanding staff people of internal affairs authorities and state security authorities, perished on duty in time of peace, after appointing them two pensions in accordance with legislation.
Law of Krasnoyarsk Territory "About Social Support of Population for Housing and Municipal Services Payment" from 17.12.2004 #13-2804.
In addition to the measures of social support, provided by the Federal Laws "About Veterans", the subsidies are given in the following amounts:
1) 50% of housing payment;
2) 50% of housing services costs within the social norms of living space, established by the regional law, and/or standards of housing services consuming, established by local self-government institutions.

7. Parents living alone, couples of parents living separetly of servicemen perished on service in time of peace or died of war injury after discharge from service, except the cases when the death came as the result of their illegal actions, after appointing them two pensions in accordance with legislation.
Law of Krasnoyarsk Territory "About Social Support of Population for Housing and Municipal Services Payment" from 17.12.2004 #13-2804.
Subsidies are given in the following amounts:
1) 100% of housing payment;
2) 100% of housing services costs within the social norms of living space, established by the regional law, and/or standards of housing services consuming, established by local self-government institutions.

8. Citizens whose total income of the family per man does not exceed five times repeated average amount per man of living wage of a family, calculated as arithmetical mean of the sum of living wages of members of the family, basing on their belonging to a certain social demographic group of corresponding climatical zone.
Law of Krasnoyarsk Territory "About Social Support of Population for Housing and Municipal Services Payment" from 17.12.2004 #13-2804.
Amount of subsidy is specified as difference between amount for housing and municipal services an applicant due to pay and maximum acceptable part of personal expenses in the total income of an applicant's family (a citizen living alone). The noted part is specified in percentage from the total income of an applicant's family (a citizen living alone) (see article 15 of Law of Krasnoyarsk Territory from 17.12.2004 #13-2804).

9. One of the parents (adopters, guardians) in families with income per head not more than the living wage established in the Krasnoyarsk Territory per head, considering living in climatical zones.
Law of Krasnoyarsk Territory "About Monthly Children Allowance" from 10.12.04 #12-2709, "Krasnoyarsky Rabochy" 31.12.2004 #52, "Vedomosty" #1(44) 10.01.05
Monthly children allowance per a child in amount of 100 Rub. (200 Rub. for a child of a single mother; 150 Rub. for a child whose parents evade paying alimony or in other cases established by legislation of RF, when exacting alimony is impossible, as well as for children of servicemen on military service.
Information is prepared by Maria Saigotina



"Bird-cherry trees are already snowing on the head with their blossom,
and it's becoming warmer in the soul, because it exists - a small motherland,
that calls and attracts, the only and unique."


Aleksey Bondarenko


News of "The Northern Lights": hopes, meetings, events, facts

1. During NPIR project implementation, internment on the programme "Human Rights. Indigenous Peoples' Rights" for the period of 2004, March-April 2005 involved 36 representatives of Evenks, Selkups and Ketos from Turukhansk Region, where the main part of indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk Territory lives. The most positive point of the project was interaction of public organizations of indigenous peoples of the region (communities, Association of Indigenous Peoples of Siberia, "Argish" Centre) with local self-government institutions of the furtherst northern territory of Krasnoyarsk Territory, presented by Head of the region Simona Yurchenko and the administration staff as her team. A number of meetings with the interns of the centre were oriented on discussing social-economical and cultural development of the northern people. Spiritual revival, joint protection of rights of this group of population of Russia - are the main lines of the regional programme acting more than 5 years. Search and support of indigenous peoples' initiatives, directed to realization of the principle "unity in diversity", to cultivating tolerance and development of international contacts, to establishing local communities through active public contacts, to strengthening the political system and local self-government - this is not the complete list of joint activities forms. The main concern is for a family, children, youth.


Uneasy time has come. Siberian people have never been spoilt by wealth of civilization, but moral values have always been the main for them. Today spiritual culture has made one step back in front of desire of material wealth: a car and high wages, a flat in the city... All these thing are needed. To build houses, churches is necessary to improve living conditions of a simple man, of Russians.
But now it is not the most important thing. Stop and look around: who will open the door of a rebuilt church? For whom will we leave everything we have earned and built? Do we have the future? In our senseless race for welfare we forget of those who need our experience, wisdom and help - OUR CHILDREN!

Five million homeless children for only 10 years of reforms - this is our future, this is our peaceful and respected old age. Indifference of adults pushes our children to where they cannot get out themselves: unemployment, dipsomania, drugs, prostitution... Broken children's lives, crippled souls - is this our future?
If we, adult and self-sufficient people, do not understand: children - that's what is important now, then we do not have the future! We should help them to return from the cruel world of indifference in the warm world of kindness and joy, love and care - IN THE WORLD OF CHILDHOOD!

Chokurova Vera

2. Ludmila Kaplina - deputy of the Legislative Assembly from Evenk Autonomous Region, notes that for integration interests of indigenous peoples, which allow to save their national culture and not to be dissolved, should be considered. She said: "I myself come from that epoch. I have always been for the integration of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, this is in my blood".
I agree with L. Kaplina's opinion in the question of integration of three regions. But together with her I'm worried for Evenks' destiny, who live in Evenkia. They are the general nation of the district. And the deputy is not indifferent what will happen to them. To my mind, the best way out could be saving Evenk Autonomy of Krasnoyarsk Territory. The deputy reminds: "...two third of the modern population of the district lived in the common region some time ago". Our parents remember about it. We, their children, did not succeed to live in the united region. But thanks to history and recollection of such people as L. Kaplina, we have never forgotten about it.
Of course, it was bad that once strong economically, huge geographically and powerful politically, Krasnoyarsk Territory was mercilessly dissected by politicians. And what is the result? The curiosity was satisfied and we started gathering the northern lands back, because it is better. It's easy to destroy a ready house, but to built it is much harder. Now we will rebuild the difficult mechanism of ruling Krasnoyarsk Territory together with Evenkia and Taimyr. But we must remember about consequences for the cultures of northern people. It's time to stop ignoring interests of indigenous peoples of the North. And for this purpose, I think, in regional authority a stable, constantly working body, which will represent interests of deer-breeding and forest people, will appear at last.
Our common main aim is to restore historical justice and to know everything about each other. I want the Polar Taimyr knows about our Turukhansk, a region where even potato grows, and in the south in Vorogovo village people can grow small water-melons.

(Anna Saigotina)

3. On the meeting with deputies of the region on 29 March 2005 in the regional House of Culture I have noted some main points important for simple people of the North.
Vsevolod Sevostyanov, Vladimir Semenov and Yury Zakharinsky noted the importance of carrying out the referendum on integration of the regions. "Yenisei Province was part of Russia for more than 300 years. Such formation ... is proved by centuries". Actually, economical benefits, questions of safety and political power expansion were not on the last place. Well known Trans-Siberian Main Line was created.
At present the benefit after deviding sovereignties is that a united region can more easily control activity of the largest financial industrial groups, settled in Siberia. They have settled substantially in Chukotka, the North of Russia, and there is some negative effect on the development of these regions, of the country in whole. Though if Nornickel was not founded by common efforts in Soviet period, there was nothing but deer. It is necessary, by coomon efforts again, to develop our Siberia and multiply wealth of Russia, as M. Lomonosov ordered. Development of Vankor is the united power of Taimyr and Evenkia. Without each other we cannot decide such questions.
In time, financial questions of the territories in the united region will be solved, technical questions will be solved. One painful questions is left, and it was stated by deputy Sevostyanov as following: "This is the problem of an ethnic group, of assimilation of cultures. We must think about it now to prevent risks of possible dissloving of the cultures of northern tribes. Saving and developing of cultural connections is an actual question, and the prior task for deputies is to provide and form the corresponding lagislative base for that."

Lubov Davinduk

4. The pride of the region is the Winter Spartakiada of schoolchildren of Turukhansk Region. On 30 March at 10 o'clock on the stadium "Yunost" we took part in the ceremony of opening the 25th Winter Spartakiada of children and youth of the region. We watched the solemnity of the action, the visible pride of children for the mission they are carrying out not for the first year. The sports winter week is a traditional holiday for the health of all the region. As the head of Regional Sports Committee said Vladimir Davinduk, the programme of competitions is very wide. There are running with a stick, skiing races, axe throwing, jumping over sledge. The holiday will be living for four days and, as organizers suppose, will be important for everybody: sportsmen and fans. On the opening of Spartakiada there were guests - deputies of the region. With the same solemnity the close will be held in the regional House of Culture on 2 April at 17.30.
In April we will have our holiday as well - the Day of Deer-Breeder in Sovrechka village. The Head of the Village Authority Antonida Davinduk has already started to prepare for the holiday, having discussed it at Coordination Council of the Association and with the head of the region S. Yurchenko. We will also take part in it. This is our culture.

Maria Saigotina

5. For all the period of study on the programme our tribesmen from "Oldomon" community have been coming to the course. The most often guest was its head German Davinduk. Many times we met with the president of the regional Association, the former intern of a similar centre in Moscow "Lauravetlan" Oksana Sinnikova. On one of the meetings on 25 March she told us what she had achieved for the years after her study at the Centre, about her work at a public organization, she introduced us federal and regional programmes of social economical development of our peoples. This year our association will be 10 years old, and Oksana Leonidovna invited us at the Coordination CounÓil of the Association, agenda of which includes the issue of preparation to the jubilee of the organization; some delegates of V Congress of Federal Association in Moscow in the middle of April will be present. At the Coordination Council of the Association on 26 March there were really delegates: from Ketos - chairman assistant of the Village Council Vyacheslav Irikov, from Evenks - Antonida Davinduk. We spoke about our wish to attract youth to such interesting activities. In the future foundation of a youth centre of the Association is planned. You can only win from cooperation.

Ludmila Davinduk

6. On initiative of the interns of the Centre, the project of the Association "Our Land" - a competition "Descendants, respond!" started its life in the regional newspaper "Mayak Severa" in the supplement "The Word of Peoples of the North" from 26 February. At present the material for the supplement is formed by our intern of group 3 Ludmila Mayorova. We began recollecting forgotten names of veterans of the Great Patriotic War from one of its participants Mikhail Dibikov, keto from Kostino village. The editorial office of the newspaper is still receiving letters from people who knew that warrior well. The first response was from 12-year-old Lena Nechayeva from Turukhansk.

Ksenia Nemchina

7. The opinion of Anatoliy Khoroshailov, the chairman of the regional headquarters of the referendum on 17 April, was important and determinative for us. Because we did not know Siberia that was united and powerful. On 1 April A. Khoroshailov came to our meeting and told us, simply and in details, everything about the life of the region in the united Krasnoyarsk Territory 10 years ago. He had what to compare now and then: he was running agro-industry complex of the region. Many figures of that time were very interesting from the point of view of development of the northern territories economy.

Anastasia Kusamina

8. At the meeting with the Commissioner on Human Rights in Turukhansk Region Andrey Bob on 2 April we discussed two questions: problems and rights of the youth of the region, especially in the field of providing employment and housing; as well as absence of information in the reports of the Commissioner on Human Rights in Krasnoyarsk Territory I. Zhmakov on breach of rights and liberties of indigenous peoples of the region for 2003-2004. We told about problems of women of our village, from deer-breeders' families. Absence of wages for deer-breeders we consider violation of human rights. We would like, by common efforts of the professional school, local authority, indigenous peoples organizations, to work out a special Regulation on provision employment at least for those representatives of indigenous peoples who are doing well at the regional professional school. Such experience the Regional Administration already has.

Leonid Bikhert

9. Not less interesting for us there was the information about work on providing communications and even Internet in the region of "North Teleradiocommunications" Joint-Stock Company, which is headed by an interesting person, Director General Igor Yurchenko. For cold and inaccessible Turukhansk Region all the world will be open soon.

Inna Davinduk

Turukhansk Association of Indigenous Peoples is 10!

According to statistics of 01.01.2005, size of the population in Turukhansk Region was 1361 people of Ketos, Selkups, Evenks. Statistics of 2003-2004 showed that average length of life in the region is 61, length of life of indigenous peoples in the region is 39 years. The main causes of deaths are diseases of respiratory organs, circulation of the blood organs, malignant tumours. Many cases of death are not connected with diseases. People die of accidents, poisoning, murders, suicide. A serious factor of early deaths is strong dipsomania.
From year to year living and social conditions not only of indigenous peoples are getting worse. Because of absence of money in the villages of the region for many years schools, hospitals, diesel electrostations, houses have not been built. Housing fund in the villages, where 90% of all the indigenous population of the region live, is without water-supply and canalization. The number of schools, hospitals, clubs and houses in a break-down condition and needed overhaul is increasing.
In the frames of budget the Administration of the region makes constructive and repairing works. So, for 5 years:
- schools in Stary Turukhansk and Surgutikha, a kindergarten building in Vereschagino, houses of culture in Surgutikha and Verhneimbatsk were built;
- overhauls of schools in Bakhta, Zotino, Bor were made;
- hostel buildings were reconstructed for the professional school in Turukhansk, for the computer centre in Bor, for the Centre of children's creative work and the House of Culture;
- diesel electrostation in Farkovo was built;
- 205 apartments with total area 12307 sq.m. were repaired.
In January 2002 in Turukhansk the Professional School 59 was opened. In the Professional School there study students from 14 to 25 years old from all the villages of Turukhansk Region, including indigenous peoples. They get skills within the region: an operator of a tractor, a driver, a welder, an accountant, a tailor, a hunter, a social worker, a manager of a farm. The Professional School has a hostel, where students from other villages of the region live. Students living in the hostel have free meals three times a day, all the rest have free meal once a day (lunch).
On the territory of the region 27 schools are working, 6 of them are in the places of dense residing of indigenous peoples of the North. Native languages are taught in the schools of the following villages: the Selkup language in Farkovo, the Evenk language in Sovrechka, the Keto language, mostly optional, 2 hours a week, in Kellog, Vereschagino, Goroshikha, Surgutikha. It is necessary to add the lessons, study national languages in senior grades, on optional lessons during summer holidays. Great importance is attached to native language propaganda, communicating in it in the family. Big hopes are for summer recreation children's ethnic camps.
In 2002 under the Regional Education Management a language laboratory started its work. Since 2000 "The Word of People of the North" has been issued as a supplement to a regional newspaper "Mayak Severa" (The Beacon of the North).
Almost all the villages of the region have cultural educational institutions: clubs, libraries. In Kellog in 2000 building of enthical cultural centre was began, according to regional special-purpose programme "Social economical development of the territories of living of indigenous peoples of the North of Krasnoyarsk Territory for 2000-2003", but as there is no financing the building is stopped now. The building was financed from regional budget. In Baklanikha and Bakhta clubs are located in old cold buildings. Libraries and the Village Houses of Culture in Bakhta, Kellog, Farkovo are in other purposes houses which do not correspond sanitary standards. So there is an extreem necessity to build a Village House of Culture and a library in Baklanikha, Bakhta, Kellog, Farkovo, Goroshikha, Maiduka.

Information is prepared by A. Kusamina, basing on the results of the meeting
with the president of Regional Association of Indigenous Peoples Oksana Sinnikova

Let's take care of our tribesmen

To the president of Association
of Indigenous Peoples of the North
"Nasha Zemlya"
Oksana Leonidovna Sinnikova
from an intern of Regional Ethnic
Informational Legal Centre "Argish"
Anna Vladimirovna Saigotina


This is to ask you to encourage, in the frames of the programmes of supporting of indigenous peoples of the North, Vladimir Nikolayevich Saigotin as the first initiator of family deer-breeders' farms in Sovrechka, Turukhansk Region. In 2005 his family farm has a jubilee - 10 years. V. Saigotin started his work on saving deer herd in the region in1995. After the collective-farm downfalling, he collected deer which were left ownerless in the tundra, established a brigade for saving the deer. Since 1995 tundra nomads have their own deer thanks to V. Saigotin's initiative. But he could not manage alone. Experienced people worked with him: Stanislav Arkadyev, Oleg Davinduk, Oleg Kurmatov. And members of their families helped them in this noble task.
These people shared their knowledge and experience, which they had received from their parents. Their hard work, love to deer helped to save this farming in the region. Now it has multiplied. People who, together with V. Saigotin, saved deer-breeding of Evenks of Sovrechka, at present are the active participants of revived traditional holiday of the village - the Day of Deer-Breeder.
I ask you to pay attention to these people. The fame of deer-breeders of all the region is based on them.
1 April, 2005

P.S. Some historical references, statistics and up-to-date facts to clarify this application. The total balance of the deer herd - proportion of offspring, slaughter and lost of deer - is impossible to calculate because there is no regular registering of deer and traditional secret of information about exact number of deer among any deer-breeding people: it is not accustomed to speak loudly about your wealth. In the past there were even battles because of deer, and now they are afraid of "evil eye". As deer-breeders say, they succeeded to save deer and total number of deer in the region of Sovrechka really increased for last years.
According to data of the Turukhansk regional department of State Statistics, up to 01.01.1995 (the year of the last official registering) it was 357 heads. In the past (1950-1970th) the number of deer in private ownership of Sovrechka inhabitants ranged between 200-400 heads, but in collective herd it was gradually decreasing. So, collective farm named after Kuibyshev in 1962-1963 had 800 deer. In Sovrechka production branch of North-Turukhansk State Industrial Farm in the year of its foundation (1967) there were only 664 heads, and by 1973 there were left only 240 heads of deer. Reduction of the number continued until the deer did not become the private ownership of deer-breeders. After that the number began growing a little. It is also connected with the fact that without snowmobiles a deer again became the main means of transport in winter. Prospects of this growth are limited, as profitability of this industry is very low and there are very little possibilities for sale of the meat and other products. On the other hand, possibilities for growth of number of deer and for deer-breeding of Sovrechka Evenks to become profitable one can find if he wants. There are enough resources for pasture, skilled herdsmen. We do not have only a steady market and social incentives to organize a bigger deer-breeding farm.
Main characteristics of Evenkia deer-breeding are use of pack- and riding deer, milking, absence of pastoral dogs for deers, making smoking devices and fences. Deer-breeding of Sovrechka Evenks differs from one of other groups of Evenks, because of their contacts with Nenets deer-breeding. In the past around the Sovetsky lakes there were Nenets lands. Connections with them are still kept.
The system of deer keeping is based on Evenk family traditions with some borrowings from Nenets people. It includes free pasturage in summer, use of smoking devices, sheds and fences. Smoking devices are most popular, they allow to keep a herd of deer of 100-200 heads near a reindeer tent during all the mosquito period. In the second half of August, when there are fewer mosquitoes and reindeer try to go from smoking devices to Taiga, deer-breeders move their herds into special fences. Fences are made connecting lakes. They limit moving of deer and facilitate guard of a herd.
For warm season most owners gather their deer in herds under herdsmen watch. In this period deer-breeders fish in open water. When autumn comes they take their deer from the common herd and keep them separately, as in winter they are used as transport. This time deer-breeder finds time for hunting. Women are house-keeping and educating children.
In the past Evenks of Sovrechka hunted in the basin of the Bolshaya Kheta River. There were lands for hunting on polar fox with special snares, for which deer transportation was used. Every winter several Evenk families were wandering there, each of them had 20-50 domestic deer. With deer polar-fox snares are checked, deer are used to move reindeer tents and all the family property while migration and for connection with villages. At present the main part of Sovrechka Evenks' deer comprises about 600 heads. Most of them are kept near the Sovetsky Lakes. Deer graze all the year, and seasonal movements for changing pasture lands are within 20-30 km. Deer-breeding also has place in the western part of the region near lakes Momchak and Margel-to, but there are fewer deer, about 100-150 heads.

A. Saigotina

My Motherland - Sovrechka

The word MOTHERLAND is linked with many things for everybody. For me they are multiple lakes of the Sovetskaya River, infinitely kind tundra, herds of domestic deer reestablished by great work of my country-men after disorganization of collective farms, my hardworking father and mother... From early childhood from generation to generation our Evenks are fishing, hunting and deer-breeding. Sovrechka is the only village where deer-breeders of Krasnoyarsk Territory live. But Evenks not engaged in deer-breeding in our Krasnoyarsk Territory also live in Severo-Yeniseisk Region in Velmo - 20 people of 205 of all the population, in Severo-Yeniseisk - 3 of 8600, in Yeruda - 3 of 337, in Suvorovsky - 1 of 82 and in Chirimb - 2 of 3. Total 30 people.
Some time ago Ketos and Selkups also were keeping deer. Today deer are in the past for them. Our old say, with deer our souls go away.
Today we were at the Museum of Regional History and Nature with our interns. So much effort and enthusiasm were spent by Tatyana Sergiyenko, the manager of the Museum, to create it. The memorial to spiritual heritage of Turukhansk people was made for only a year. In exposition "Mode of Life and Culture of Northern People" deer-breeding of Ketos is presented as the past. In 1956 Ketos carefully constructed covered enclosures for their deer to protect them from rain, snow, wind... Now there is no Keto family who can boast of having saved a deer or knowledge of deer-breeding. In Kellog there is one 75-year-old man who was herding deer some time and remembers how to do it.
Are my people expected by the same destiny? In the memory of older generation of Sovrechka they keep the time, when they were not afraid for their future. They all had work, prosperity. People enjoyed life and children and thought it was forever. Nobody could surmise deer-breeders would not get their wages for the period of working and would only hope for minimum pension when he is old... and would drink.
The main problem of my country-men is to save Sovrechka, deer, our rich culture. It is bad when a man, the people have to be afraid for the future. I don't think gas and oil of Vankor will be useful for my tundra. Every event, like this, is followed by disaster for us.

Lubov Davinduk

For the young - to keep fathers' traditions

Sovrechka is the settlement of Evenks whose population is about 200 people in the region. Few of them a leading settled life. Deer-breeding is a traditional occupation of this people, and Sovrechka is the only place in Turukhansk region where keeping deer is based on the experience received from fathers. To provide a herd of deer with food, Evenks are constantly travelling over the forest tundra. Evenks, like deer, are unfastidious and hardy. From the place of the reindeer tent to the village, where almost every deer-breeder has a house, they sometimes go for two days.
Deer-breeders can fully provide themselves with clothes and food, hunting, fishing and deer-breeding. The complex of the big and the small Sovetsky Lakes, Lake Nemniakit and Lake Dugakit, can be called the jewel of the North of Turukhansk Region, where salmon-trout, white salmon, whitefish, sometimes sturgeon, and other kinds of fish are caught. Now the task of recovery of deer-breeding is solvable in whole. A small solidary group wishing and able to keep deer can overcome many difficulties. Its main problem is cadres. The necessity of reconstruction of deer-breeding technology is fallen to the younger generation's lot who have not yearned to continue traditional lifestyle. Deer-breeding is considered troubling and not practical now without the state's support. For its reestablishment and growth of incentive of the young, attraction of all the possible resources is needed. Reestablishment of deer-breeding in the region must be considered as socially important task of local state authorities for the North and northern people. In 2002 for improving health and growth of number of deer Turukhansk Region Administration bought a herd of these northern beauties in Evenkia. For the young the task to save and increase the Evenkia wealth - deer herd - is left.

Ludmila Davinduk

My People

Evenks are one of the biggest (more than 35 thousand) indigenous peoples of the North of Russia. In the past these people were called Tungus. In ethnograph G. Vasilyevich's (1969) opinion, this word first meant "man". Evenks were also called Orochens, that means "deer's". This is the only people of the North that settled not only the huge taiga lands, but went far to the North to forest tundra. The territory of their living is vast: on the West to the left bank of the Yenisei, on the North - Polar tundra between the Yenisei and the Lena, on the East - South part of the Okhotsk coast, on the South - southern boarder of the Evenki Autonomous Area, Katansk Region of Irkutsk Territory, northern regions of the Buryat Republic and Chita Territory, Aldan Region of the Sakha Rupublic (Yakutia), Amur Territory, Kamchatka, Sakhalin Iseland. In China a rather numerous diaspora of Evenks lives.
My people are called eternal deer-riding nomads. Actually, looking for better pastures and hunting lands they were constantly wandering. They are still using tents as dwelling. In winter they wear traditional fur-clothes: a loose parka, a cap, fur shawl for women, mittens - kokoldy and fur stockings - bokary. Deer-breeders' wives are housekeeping, cooking for husbands and children, sewing, etc.
A deer for an Evenk is the main wealth. This is his life. Despite snowmobile technique appeared on the North, in conditions of absence of roads deer is the most relieble transport. Owning transport deer influences on hunting industry of my relatives, first of all, polar fox, sable, hare and squirrel hunting. With deer people go to a village for food and other goods, bring children to school, visit each other, carry different heavy things.
Deer-breeders are the main carriers of the culture of their people. These are deer-breeding Evenks of Sovrechka who effectively keep their language, national clothes, dwelling and traditions, and their families are distinguished with firmness. But development of deer-breeding should be maintained not only by people's enthusiasm, it must be based on firm laws, legal acts of the state. State control and help are necessary in the specific industry of the northern people. But they don't have them. Huge profits of the production are going past the deer-breeders, and social economical status of deer-breeders and their families is still behind the stable state's view. This can be approved by the fact of absence of legislation about deer-breeding and no wish to retify the ILO Convention 169.

M. Saigotina

Does deer-breeding have the future in Krasnoyarsk Territory?

Deer-breeding in Russia also has difficult times in Russian economy of transitional period. The number of deer reduced two times. But even in such conditions Russia has two-third of the world number of domestic reindeer. Thanks to deer-breeding many indigenous peoples save themselves, their languages and cultural traditions, ability to live and create in severe climatic conditions. Decline of deer-breeding is followed by poverty of aboriginal population connected with it.
The main indicator of general state of deer-breeding have always been the number of deer in private farms. The more private deer, the higher economical independence, confidence in the future of deer-breeding people. Unfortunately, this cannot be understood by many officials of agriculture. Probably, they pretend they don't understand.
Support of deer-breeding of Evenkia, Taimyr and Turukhansk Region in already united Krasnoyarsk Territory will help to solve many problems of indigenous peoples engaged in this economy. Especially questions of providing employment will be solved. Those peoples who have lost their skills in deer-breeding need help to organize exchange programmes on deer-breeding reestablishment. In this way deer-breeding in the region will be saved and will become a stable source of profit for indigenous people.
Keeping deer herds in taiga is difficult because of the natural conditions. This should be taken into consideration working up and putting into practice promotion programmes. Here deer-breeding historically developed as a transporting economy with small amount of animals. In Turukhansk Region deer-breeding was developed with three peoples: Ketos, Selkups and Evenks. Up to the present only Evenks have saved it. Traditions of Ketos' and Selkups' deer-breeding within Turukhansk Region were very much alike - they can be considered the same type of deer-breeding. Thorough studying of the history of deer-breeding of Ketos and Selkups can make possible the revival of the unique economy, but not as the main one.

Historical reference on deer-breeding of Ketos and Selkups

Ketos began deer-breeding late. At present this Yenisei people, who have saved their culture in comparison with many disappeared peoples (Assans, Pumpokoltses, Yugs, etc.), often hear the reproach: why have not they saved and are not engaged in deer-breeding? We feel necessary to give a historical reference on it. We don't want to offend another not deer-breeding people - Selkups.

All these are taiga peoples, and before Russians came most of them had not had deer. Afterwards deer-breeding was developed by Ketos, who lived along the left plain bank of Yenisei (along the Dubches, the Yeloguy, the Surgutikha, the Pakulikha) and in the basin of the Kureika. Only Podkamennotungus Ketos did not keep deer.

Deer were used for transport purposes exclusively and helped travelling during hunting, main object of which was a squirrel. As a rule, they were harnessed into sledges. Usually families owned not more than 10-20 deer, which were hardly enough for wandering in winter trade. Herds of 60 heads were exceptions. Before collectivisation the biggest herd of 250 heads was owned by Kureika Ketos the Serkovs, in this herd animals of four brothers were united [Alekseyenko, 1967].
Ketos did not have any arranged system of keeping deer. Here is the characteristics of Keto deer-breeding given in "Sovetsky Sever" (the Soviet North) magazine in 1934 [In Turukhansk Region..., 1934]: "For deer-breeding there is no arranged use of reindeer moss. In summer deer are set free and feed not far from sheds (where they stand they make smoking devices and so on). Deer often go away for several tens of kilometres, then return, come into other herds, etc. With the first snow aborigines gather in groups and walk in the forest looking for their deer..."

As Alekseyenko noted [1967], Ketos' practice of summer free pasture led to big loss. 90% of year loss was in summer period. As by the moment of calving deer were usually free, mortality of newborn calves was very high. To save offspring some families detained the herd near the camp till the end of calving and then kept newborn calves and their mothers tethered. But such actions were exceptions, usually Ketos knew about loss in their herd only in autumn, when they gathered deer for hunting.

During inspection of hunting-trade economy of Turukhansk Region in1973-1976 [Klokov, 1978] some groups of Ketos were still using deer teams for hunting (see map). On the North of the region Ketos from Serkovo village and from the Manduiskoye Lake were hunting with deer in the basin of the Kureika river and its tributary the Degen river. Some small amount of transport deer was kept by Ketos from Baklanikha and Surgutikha villages in the basin of the Pakulikha river. Yelogui Ketos had two small herds of deer - one near Kellog, the other - on the Dynda Lake. It is significant that on the left bank of the Yenisei some Selkup's families living there participated in Keto's deer-breeding. By the present Keto's deer-breeding disappeared completely, but the questions of its reestablishment are being discussed.

Deer-breeding of Baikha Selkups, who lived on the territory of Turukhansk Region, was almost the same. Like Ketos, Selkups let their deer walk free in taiga in summer, and in winter they used them as transport for hunting. There were not many deer. By P. Ostrovskikh [1931], in 1920-1930 few people had 10-12 deer, usually they kept 2-3. In 1970-s transport deer were still regularly used by Selkups for winter squirrel and polar fox hunting in the basin of the Verkhnaya Baikha and wild deer hunting north of Turukhansk Region (see map). On the rest of the territory hunters dispenced with them.

Public herd of Selkup deer belonged to North-Turukhansk State Industrial Farm. In 1973 it consisted of 113 grown-up animals. In winter riding deer for some small fee were given for rent to the hunters on the staff of the farm, usually 4-6 heads per each hunter. Young deer were left in the herd under a herdsman's supervision. The herd was kept in the region of the Ladyga village, located on the bank of the river with the same name, the Verkhnaya Baikha tributary. The structure of the herd had a vivid transport orientation - 33% of neuter bucks.
In the same herd private deer were kept, 189 heads. 135 of them were used for riding. Owners of these deer were 14 Selkup families. Five families had up to 5 heads of deer, seven - from 6 to 15 heads. Two Seplkups from Ladyga had: one - 40, the other - 46 deer. The herd existed till the mid 1980-es. At present Selkups deer-breeding has been saved only outside Turukhansk Region in the basin of the Taz River.

Material is prepared by Vyacheslav Krasnopeyev

How to reduce to number of candidates for beggars?

I was born in a village and I know the life of my fellow-countrymen - Selkups. In the past these were people who lived a nomadic life hunting furs and fishing. They had natural exchange -hunting and fishing products for food and other things: nets, cloth, dishes, etc. After the war collective farms began developing, villages were built. Few people lived in Farkovo, most of the people lived on trading stations. For the children, whose parents lived a nomadic life, a boarding-school was built for elementary education. Some could even get higher education. Natasha Kayanovish works now at the Committee of Nationalities Affairs in the Krasnoyarsk Territory Administration. The School Director in Farkovo - Dmitry Yarkov, Director Assistant of the school - Natalia Bikhert... Mikhail Tamelkin, in the past one of the members of the party staff, now the head of the trade station of the Tamelkins'. But these are individuals. And this is left in the past.
Agriculture developed on the North. It gave working places for many people. They bred cattle, built a farm for growing foxes and polar foxes. Wages of hunters-fishermen were not high but stable. In the last years of the Soviet period profession of hunter became the most prestigious and highly-paid. Among our hunters people with the title of "Guardsman of Fur Hunt" appeared.
Years of reforms destroyed lifestyle built by our parents for years. Hunters and fishermen became poor because of the low level of sale of the products. Reforms influenced the wages of my tribesmen, that resulted in the low level of life. This is one of the sore problems of people of the Far North. Many people began drinking because of hopelessness and left their bitter life early. Recently I talked to a hunter Ivan Kusamin. I want to know how a "forest" man lives. Before studying in the Centre I was afraid to touch this subject. I wondered how he had lived for the last years, where he was selling fish, fur, meat, what were the conditions he was working in.
"What to speak about? Nobody buys fish. When buys - for nothing. They say it is expensive to carry it out by helicopter. To bring furs to the regional centre by yourself is approximately 5000 rubles pur a man for a week". "You have subsidies, you receive pensions 1500 rubles, children allowance, don't you?" "This is all spent for food. They raise pension, but food becomes more expensive earlier." "But you get fur, fish, meat. Profit must be especially from the fur." "Let's count: for a sable you will receive on an average 1000 rubles, deer meat 70 rubles per kilo, without speaking about fish. When necessary things, technics reach us, their price grows several times. For example, an engine costs 30 thousand, 1 cartridge - 10 rubles, 1 litre of petrol - 15-20 rubles. Plus nets, ropes, etc. Everything has to be bought. Children are growing. We want to give them education, so that they could write and count at least. They need to be dressed, sometimes presents. They like parents' attention and endearment. To buy a television, a cupboard, a stove, another thing for the house, it also needs big expenses. We sometimes leave for the village: want comfortable living. You can also be tired of the forest. Most of "forest people" do not have medicines. If somebody has, he does not know how to take them. If only it was taught in the professional school in Turukhansk! We do not go further than our village. What health resorts can be spoken about! We care not of welfare but of survival. We don't know anything of social benefits. Only our Association tells us and do something for our aborigines." "But how can you live or, more precisely, survive in these conditions? This is North, moreover taiga, with no conditions for living?" "Selkups are not considered as men any more. Now we are included in the category of indigent, being in hard life circumstances. Look at the lists in the Association, only aboriginals ask for financial support. Some for transportation from the hospital, some for clothes, some for bread. This is the way we are living. And no wish to think about living environment protection and saving our souls. Poverty doesn't make anybody a noble man." This is what a "forest man" thinks - a Selkup in Farkovo taiga.


Leonid Bikhert

Difficulties and problems of a "worthy living level" of men

I want to be sure, the strategy of human rights and liberties protection in 21 century will be oriented in Russia on the most important value - rights of a simple man, because a new international public order can be built on their observation only. And I'm glad that one day I could see some progress in this field in our country. Not big, but we have it. Some time ago foreigners were not let on the north or in a "hot" place of the country - Chechnia. Today it is reality.
However, you don't feel happy when you realize that you, probably, will not see the improvements for all your life. And you console yourself with the thought, that maybe your children will see and live a better life. If we, their parents, make efforts for that. To do it we need to communicate with the world, where a lot of intelligent people live. In our region it is not easy: no local television and regional news over it, very poor newspaper, not everything is OK with the new technologies: Internet, e-mail, cellular telephone... Problems even with the usual telephone. So a man is enclosed in the circle of his family and 1-2 reliable friends. Many people work for two rates for years, but cannot afford to travel for a holiday, to see "the main land", to buy a simple TV, nothing to say about a computer for children.
Recently I have read in one of central newspapers about issue of forecast of social economical development of Russia for the period to 2007. According to it, the Minister of Economical Development intends to reduce the number of the poor to 10.5-12.5% by that time. But, probably, my friends and tribesmen will not be touched by these plans, as their total profit of work for two rates does not exceed the living wage. And from the point of view of science, poverty is impossibility to keep a certain middle living level in a certain society.
I think, if a man for several years cannot afford to buy a washing machine necessary for his family, some simple furniture, he is poor. So you can get only approximate idea of living level of a man of Russia. Because the profit itself is very difficult to check in present conditions. Then it is difficult to take into consideration regional specifics. If Moscow citizens' average salary is 8000 rubles a month, citizens of Kellog, Farkovo on the Far North - 3 or 5 thousand, if they are lucky.
The law on the living wage was accepted in 1997. The main part of it is spent for food, so it does not take into account growth of living costs, growth of prices for travel, medicines and housing services. Total in Russia they counted 23% of the real poor.
There is a traditional set of property, which 80% of Russian people have even in the villages: a television set, a fridge, a vacuum cleaner, a carpet, usual furniture. If somebody is deprived of it, he is poor. He does not have what the majority consider the most necessary. If somebody could not use paid medical survice at least once for three years, some kind of paid education, did not travel for holiday - this is one more sign of his deprivation. When, despite his profit, a man acquires this set, he can be called poor. The following figures were published: 5.4% of Russians have either black-and-white TV set or none; 1.3% have no fridge; 6.7% have no carpet and 17% have no washing machine, vacuum cleaner or a simple set of furniture... And we wonder, why a man is losing interest to life, drinking, no wish to become a citizen.
I hurry to calm the readers of the bulletin. Conditions of the population of our Krasnoyarsk Territory are not so bad as in other regions. This makes me a bit optimistic. Compare in the table, prepared by the Board of Teleradiobroadcasting, Press and Information of the Administration of Krasnoyarsk Territory in March of this year, average salary per month in Krasnoyarsk Territory and other regions for January-November 2004.

Salary in a region
Health care, physical culture and sport, social provision, Rub.
Education, Rub.
Culture and art, Rub.
Krasnoyarsk Territory
Altai Republic
Buryatia Republic
Tuva Republic
Khakasia Republic
Altai Territory
Irkutsk District
Kemerovo District
Novosibirsk District
Omsk District
Tomsk District
Chita District

I don't want to give details for Turukhansk Region as a territory of Far North. It is far not like Altai, though the Altai Republic is also Siberia.

Sincerely, Vyacheslav Krasnopeyev


A look through the century

Today, addressing to you with the following text, I respond to your requests: to know as much as possible of how our ancestors lived and what they did, what they worried about and hoped for in their life. I will be helped with essays of Vladimir Peredolsky, written after his travels to the "country of Yenisei Ostyak people in 1894, 1895, 1898".
This well-known Russian traveller of 19th century remembers: "All three times I came into Ostyaks environment absolutely alone, travelled along the Yenisei in a small boat (there were no engines!) with draught dogs. I did not trade, did not take any vodka with me, and could not only threaten Ostyaks with anything, but, on the contrary, I myself often needed their help, when, for example, wet and blooded was swimming with my dogs to the bank, and my boat, broken of underwater rocks, was carried by waves in the expanse of the powerful Yenisei. Ostyaks heartily welcomed me with my four-legged companions, dried and warmed us, and then helped to find somewhere tens versts away from the place of wreck our boat casted up to the bank, and having mended it with common efforts, saw me off with the warmest wishes to the further journey. It was not once, and not twice..."
Talking with people of Turukhansk North, Peredolsky closely knew life and traditions of its inhabitants, and all his essays he presented as real pictures without changing even names: "Savoska, Yartegin, Kayar, Silka - all these people lived, suffered, struggled and felt exhausted in the struggle on the banks of the far Yenisei". On the pages of the newspaper you can meet the blame of arbitrariness of merchant Landur (on the results of the publication in Krasnoyarsk a criminal action was held on accusation Landur in torture of aborigines), and what is more, Peredolsky was promised "especially by the Yenisei governor M. Plets, that all the measures will be taken to free Turukhansk Region from Landur". And in half a year Peredolsky was informed that "by the force of His Majesty a cruel Landur was really sent away from Turukhansk Region forever".
That time already such educated and sensible people as Vladimir Peredolsky understood that separate volunteer actions of administration are not enough. Even if two people are fed and consoled, arbitrariness to others will go on, because on the bank of the Yenisei not only fiend Landur is ruling, no - the ruler here is VODKA! "Alcohol, forbidden by the law, (those days there was a ban to import and sell alcohol products on the territory of Turukhansk Region) by wide wave, like calm patient lawlessness, with the help of traders flows into the Ostyaks' environment and creats a fate, which for the last time was called with a poetical term fading. How Yenisei Ostyaks' fate should be called we shall not discuss; not the name is important for us, but the nature of the process, which is left equally sad whatever you call it. Ostyak is dying, and his dying lies as a heavy reproach on Russian, and not only on the Russian who oppresses Ostyaks on the far borderlands of Asia, but a Russian in common, as he, protecting himself againt a harmul element in his society (i.e. deporting criminals to Turukhansk Region), mercilessly throughs him away in the surrounding of defenseless aboriginals, no care how these aboriginals would struggle with such experienced in life draff of Russian society".
A century later, these days show the same sad pictures of hard alcohol drinking, moreover, if before these were separate actions, now almost everybody drinks and drinks a lot, that results in growth of criminality even among aboriginal population, and death becomes a frequent guest in their houses. Social orphanhood expands, children's homes are filled with children's voices. And Vladimir Peredolsky asks us from the far past "Is there anybody alive in the field?! ... Reply!" What will we answer, how will continue the article? We hope your letters will help us, and in the next issue of the "Word of People of the North" we will go on this talk.


O. Sinnikova, intern of the Indigenous Peoples Centre "Lauravetlan"-96
with assistance of Tatyana Sergienko -
the Manager of Turukhansk Museum of Local History and Nature

Turukhansk Region at the beginning of 20th century

Explorer V.I.Anuchin (1875 - 1941): "Having occupied Turukhansk Region, Russians found there the following tribes: Samoyeds, Yuraks, Dolgans, Yakuts, Tunguses and Yenisei Ostyaks. All these peoples, different in language and origin, lived a calm peaceful life of hunters and fishermen. Very small population of the region, spread over its vast territory, did not have any reason for inner conflicts, for the same reason they never had any organized kingdom: no tsars or kings, no military leaders, no powerful representatives of any religious authority, never - people lived by their clans with a chief chosen for a period.
Apparently, none of these tribes were aborigines of the country, they all in their legends told about their original motherland where they had come from to Turukhansk Region, and this motherland was either in the south or in the east or in the west.
Absence of organized public structure of local people was in Russian conquerors' interests, and they did not break their lifestyle, let them live and control as they like, the only condition - to pay yasak - was accepted submissively by all inhabitants of the region, and since then Moscow government did not take any interest in the country.
The same low interest was in the Russian population, and some kind of institutions were established in the region if only they were needed for the government and its representatives.
If the central government forgot about the country of black days and white nights because of the time of unrest soon after conquering Turukhansk Region, being busy with new rich lands discovered in the east, the local administration showed no initiative to improve control of the region, to realize reforms. The population was not given even that little, but so essential for development, weal of political system which Russia possessed that time."

Turukhansk Region at the beginning of 21st century

Ksenia Nemchina, 18 years old, Keto, Bakhta village:
In 21st century Turukhansk Region became one of the furtherst northern lands of Krasnoyarsk Territory. Evenkia and Taimyr with the peoples kindred to us - Nganasans, Nenetses, Dolgans, Enetses, Evens - were proclaimed separate areas by the Constitution of Russia in 1993. But on 17 April 2005 already there is a referendum on joining these three areas in a single Krasnoyarsk Territory. Being together is checked by the time. Many terms and names are changed. Before there were tribes, a horde, now we have such words as peoples, ethnic societies, nations. The names of the tribes have changed; Samoyeds, Yuraks, Ostyaks have disappeared... And my native region is also changing. Three indigenous peoples live on its territory now - Evenks, Selkups, Ketos. The region is the land where mostly my tribesmen live. They are still fishing and hunting, furs trading. However, some intellectuals appeared, some leaders in village administrations from our peoples. But the inner of the people has not changed: we and the nature are the single whole. Unfortunately, the number of Ketos is reducing. Those, who know traditions, language well, are a little more than 50.
Turukhansk Region is the furtherst northern part of Krasnoyarsk Territory, founded in 1928. The southern border is located in latitude 60 40 , northern in 68 20 . The region borders in the South with Yenisei Region, in the North with Taimyr Autonomous Area, in the West with Tyumen District, in the East with Evenkia Autonomous Area. The area of the region can be compared with the area of some countries of West Europe, CIS - 214 thousand sq.km, its lenth from South to North is 1200 km. The main river is the Yenisei, length 800 km, with big tributaries the Bakhta, the Yeloguy, the Kureika, the Turukhan, the Podkamennaya Tunguska, the Sukhaya Tunguska and the Nizhnaya Tunguska. Turukhansk is the administrative and cultural centre of the region with all the necessary for life of the population social infrastructure, providing inhabitants with working places: an aviacompany, housing services, forestry, a communication centre, the central hospital, the Palace of Culture, schools (secondary and three primary), kindergartens, libraries, a musical school, the Centre of Children's Creative Work "Aist", a museum complex, the "Mayak Severa" newspaper publishing house with its own printing-house. The distance from Turukhansk to Krasnoyarsk along the avialine is 1100 km, by river transport - 1400 km. On the territory of the region there located "Yeloguisky", "Turukhansky" protected areas of Central-Siberian Nature Reserve.
There are 30 settlements with the average distance from the regional centre 400 km. According to data of 1 January 2004 there are 12549 people living in the region, among which the main aboriginal population - indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North Ketos, Selkups, Evenks, numbered a little more than 1400 people. There are settlements of old-believers in the region.
Peculiarities of the region. Turukhansk Region is the northern territory, unique with its length over 1.5 thousand km of middle-taiga landscape, changing abruptly to wild northern taiga, and in the far north-west changing in the same abrupt way to polar-by tundra. From the south to the north through all the territory of the region the Yenisei, one of the biggest rivers in the world, flows. All the ridges are coverd with primeval taiga, and only seldom hunters' huts sign rare visits of a man.
Agro-climatic conditions of the region are unfavourable. The greatest part is temperate-cold, but in the south early potato and other vegetables ripen. Vorogovo village is the motherland of agriculture in Krasnoyarsk Territory. The amount of wild growing provisions is so huge that can provide other regions. Berries, mushrooms, cedar nuts, different medical herbs - all taiga and tundra riches can fully provide personal needs and industrial North. 11 sorts of fruit and berries can have market value.
Use of northern sorts of potato in private gardening in the conditions of northern taiga gives harvest 300-200 metric centners from hectare, cabbage - 300-350, big harvest of turnip, carrot, beetroot. It is real to raise the local production of potato and vegetables up to 2100 and 1300 tons accordingly, if to expand sowing areas 3-5 times. There are local labour resources for that.
Possibilities of fishing in reservoirs are: for food - 1200 and not for food - 1000 tons a year. Main kinds of fish: burbot, herring, perch, pike, whitefish, white-salmon and other. All these things show Turukhansk is rich with more than one million".
March 2005, Turukhansk


4 April 1910

1. Tartar department. Tartar wedding...
2. Russian department. Street holiday in a Siberian village. The scenery - village street, a swing. Group of youth, elderly village inhabitants, children. Village games: dancing, singing, round dances. Round dances songs will be performed...
3. Maloross department. Musical ethnographical scene from Ukrainian living...
4. Department of
A) Kirghiz song...
B) Russian song...
C) Tartar song...
D) Maloross song...
5. Kamlaniye department.
Kamlaniye is a religious ritual of all abirigines believing in Shamanism. In Shamanists' belief the world is ruled by good and evil spirits that control a man. Evil spirits send a man different misfortunes, illnesses, do harm; to fight them it is necessary to apply for a help of a man who is a middleman between people and spirits and who can communicate with them. This middleman - shaman - can know which spirit is doing harm for that man, why he is angry with him and what sacrifice he needs from the guilty man of the earth. Before the ritual shaman puts on his dress every detail of which is a symbol. This dress must scare a spirit with whom shaman will be fighting; besides he is fighting with his tambourine, showing a horse which he is riding to the spirit's dwelling and hurrying it with a lash - a beater... After Kamlaniye is finished we ask you not to applaud.
Organizers: A. Tugarinov, N. Barybalov, G. Polonsky

Material is prepared by Inna Davinduk



Spiritual heritage of Ketos is their language

Among indigenous peoples of Yenisei North of Siberia there is one, with which a lot of scientific problems connected. This people is Keto. Over two centuries they attract attention of different scientists. But many questions of their historical destiny, language and culture are still open, and they will be solved by researchers of the new century. And it is possible, we - descendants of this people - will be among them.
Ketos are small-numbered indigenous people of Yenisei North, original hunters and fishermen, last bearers of the living language of Yenisei linguistic family. By their lifestyle they are countrymen, although by 1989 17.8% of them lived in towns. They are national minority even on their motherland - in Turukhansk Region of Krasnoyarsk Territory. Half of all Ketos are concentrated there. They comprise three compact groups on the left-bank tributaries of the Yenisei: Yelogui group (national centre - Kellog village on the Yelogui river), Surgutikha group (Surgutikha village on the Surgutikha river) and Pakulikha group (Baklanikha village on the Yenisei). Before moving to Baklanikha they lived on the Pakulikha river. The fourth group, named after Kureika (Serkovo village on the Kureika river and Maduika village on the Munduiskoye Lake), lives in the north of the region. Ketos' neighbous are Selkups, Evenks and also Russians and representatives of other nationalities.
Separate families live in many Russian Turukhansk settlements (Vorogovo, Sumarokovo, Bakhta, Verkhne-Imbatskoye, Kangotovo, Vereschagino, Goroshikha, regional centre Turukhansk). In Baikit region of Evenkia since 1960-s the fifth compact Keto group lives -Podkamennotungus (Sulomai village on the river Podkamennaya Tunguska). There are some Keto families in Evenk villages Baikit, Poligus. Finally, separate families live in Yenisei Region (Yartsevo and Sym villages) and in Igarka town, which at the beginning of 2005 became town of Turukhansk Region, as well as Svetlogorsk and Kureika.
Natural conditions promoted development of hunting and fishing, gathering wild-growing berries and mushrooms of Ketos long ago and till now. Deer-breeding was mostly by-work (transporting, for personal needs). These original Ketos occupations affected the specifics of peoples' lifestyle, their culture of life and conception of the world, that were revealed in their spoken folklore - tales, legends...
The word "Keto" is not the self-name of the people. It was put "from above" in 1920-s: in its base, like for other aborigines of the North, the word "man" (ket') was put. Before that Ketos were known as Ostyaks, Yenisei Ostyaks, Yenisei people. The name "Keto" easily came into their life as a general self-name of the people: it came from a word of the native language, which was originally the vocative case form, used when one Keto man addressed another.
The Keto language today is the last living language of the big Yenisei family, which included the Kott, Assan, Arin languages already disappeared. On the problem of its saving, in my opinion, a German scientist G.Vener, who knows this language perfectly, said vividly. In the Indigenous Peoples Centre "Argish" the letter was resent by Valery Topkov, the chief of Sym Community "Arun" of the Yenisei Region, Krasnoyarsk Territory. I called the letter "An appeal to Keto!" Here are extracts from it:
"With all the tragic situation the Keto people are in now, as Voctor Krivonogov described in the book "Ketos in front of the Third Millenium", there is still possibility, in my opinion, to save that little part of material and spiritual culture of Ketos, which is still kept; but the main thing is to save the native Keto language. Only teaching it in kindergartens and schools will not be able to save it; it is very important to promote it among Keto population, so that they speak only Keto in their families, children began speaking their native language in families, in this case the language will go on living, and Keto people with it. But parents in the families must be convinced of it, engrafted love to the native language, the language of a wonderful structure, the Indian type language, which is one of the unique spiritual jewels of Siberia. I have been studying this language since 1961, for 43 years, and cannot stop wondering its astonoshing structure, cannot stop enjoying its unique musical sounds, its unusual word tissue. How is it possible not to love it, moreover if it is your native language! In my next book about Ketos and other Yenisei peoples kindred to them (Yugs, Kotts, Arintses, Assans and Pumpokoltses) and their languages I approve, basing on language and other data, ancient kinship of these peoples and their languages with Indians of North America of Na-Dene group. Having read this book, everybody will be assured Ketos are Indians of Siberia, who have been saved as a great MIRACLE till the present days. And it will be very sad, if we, modern people, do nothing to save the Keto language and Keto people with it - Indians of Siberia. For this purpose I find the idea of the 1st Congress of Keto people great, as this congress can become a stimulus to awake national self-consciousness of Keto, for new interest to their national sources, and therefore, to native language".
If we think in the same way as the scientist, let's respond to him, thank him for attention to our small people and try together with him to public his work of many years on our land.


Prof. Dr. Heinrich Werner
Seminar fur Sprach- und Kulturwiss.
Zentralasiens der Universitat Bonn
Regina-Pasic-Weg 7, 53113 Bonn

Lubov Khalvina

Sceintific remark. The Keto language is the last living language of the big Yenisei family, which also included the Kott, Assan, Arints, Pumpokolts and other languages. They totally disappeared in the middle of 19th century. Since that time two dialects of the Keto language are known: Imbatian and Symian, though Symian is now recognized as independent language of Yenisei family. In Imbatian dialect, which is spoken by modern Ketos, linguists distinguish several subgroups depending on the place of living: Yelogui, Surgutikha, Kureika, etc.
The importance of collecting new data on unwritten language is obvious, and original texts are one of the main sources. 1950-1970-s were still the period of living folk tradition. Its field was abruptly diminished by the end of 1980-s with the older generation's going away and cardinal changes in cultural and everyday life of people. There are very few skilled performers among Ketos. The originality of oral tradition is broken. The number of bearers of their native language is reduced. During the census of 1989 almost half Ketos (49.4%) called Russian their native language, and those speaking fluent Keto were only 5.5%. In 1991-1992 the number of peoples who consider their language as a native one was 32.0%. The only language of Yenisei family left, a phenomenon language is endangered. Teaching the Keto language as a separate subject at elementary school cannot change the general tendency. The future of the language depends on whether it will be the language of everyday use of children and youth. But these forecasts are not favourable, as their parents mostly belong to the generation oriented on the Russian language, Russian spouse, urban culture.
Keto-speaking groups at the beginning of our era lived far from the territory of present settlements - in mountain taiga regions, where the Irtysh, the Tom, the Abakan and the Yenisei itself spring from. Some part of them went down the Irtysh and along its tributaries came to the tributary of the Ob - the Vasyugan, and then across the Ob, the Tym and the Sym to the upper Yelogui.
Abundance of rivers on the lands between the Ob and the Yenisei made favourable landscape conditions for people's moving (the image of a river as a road is typical for oral culture of Ketos). With the Ob-Yenisei lands the beginning of ethnic and cultural contacts of Ketos, Khanties and Selkups is connected; they lasted further in Turukhansk Region already. Closeness of plots and themes in folk traditions of these peoples is connected with their contacts, their environment and everyday life, customs and traditions.
Blood ties, belonging to the same clan gave the right of reciprocal help, participating in sharing fish and meat. These rights gave shelter, food, warmth to the old childless people, who were left without breadwinners - children, protected single and sick people. All Ketos, either they lived on the Podkamenaya Tunguska or Kureika, knew about their real and mythical ancestors, actions of legendary heroes and shamans, spirits - tribesmen protectors. Folklor was a means of communication between generations, kept knowledge and served a historical memory of people without written language about themselves.
To survive in severe nature conditions people were helped by original culture and lifestyle adapted to local ecological conditions. They were unmounted fishermen and hunters of taiga zone. The base of their economy before arriving of Russians on Yenisei was fishing and hunting large ungulate and waterfowl. These occupations provided food equally not only after its catch, but during the year thanks to prepared in advance products.
The tools of hunting and fishing were similar and universal in use. All kinds of animals and game were hunted with bows and arrows; big animals were caught with similar in consruction pits. Nets and twig-wickered snares were used for fishing and waterfowl hunting. Ketos also know night catching fish with fishspear.
But the main Ketos' occupation was furs hunting. Market development of furs hunting and influence of production culture of Russians caused expansion of firearms, new types of snares, fishing tools, etc.
Deer-breeding for Ketos always was supplementary. Deer-breeding appeared late for them and did not change its traditional organization, as the main occupation was still fishing and hunting. Deer were used exclusively as transport for moving during winter hunting, the rest of the time they grazed free in taiga. The Podkamennotungus Ketos did not have deer at all.
For housekeeping of Ketos rational use of local material was typical - pelts of taiga animals, birds, fish, as well as wood, bones, horns, birch-bark.
Smithery made Ketos famous among other peoples of the Yenisei North. Ketos changed their scrapers for pelts, knives, which were multipurpose tools. Skilful and expressive plastic art of worship was: images of spirits - shamans' helpers, some of their attributes and dress details. It is especially remarkable in comparison with worship sculpture. Traditions of smithery of Ketos are usually connected with southern-Siberia period of the history of their ancestors. It is significant that in beliefs, connected with hunting and fishing, the idea of rebirth of a beast, a fish caught became especially vital, as well as rituals providing constant success in hunting and fishing.

Material is prepared by L. Khalvina



What is the number of indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk Territory?

The number of indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia of Krasnoyarsk Territory accordong to census of 1989 and 2002
(including Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) and Evenk Autonomous Areas)

Notes, changes for 13 years
Number, (people)
Specific weight, (%%)
Number, (people)
Specific weight, (%%)
Total population
1.8 times reduced
Before were registered as Russians or Khakases. Refered to IP since 2001
2.2 times reduced
10.4 times reduced
2.7 times reduced
4.2 times reduced
Itelmens+ Kamchadals
Before Kamchadals were refered to Itelmens
6.2 times reduced
4.2 times reduced
Close to Yukaghirs. According to Census 2002 not registered
Close to Ultchis. According to Census 2002 not registered
According to census 2002 not registered
According to Census 2002 not registered
Note: According to Census 1989 in Krasnoyarsk Territory with northern areas 27 nationalities refered to indigenous small-numbered peoples were registered, according to Census 2002 - 25.