TABLE OF CONTENTS
|ARGISH OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF THE KRASNOYARSK REGION!||
A word "argish" for each of 45 indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East of Russia means "to move, travel from one place of residence to another" by virtue of various circumstances: natural, social, economic, e.g. because of limited natural resources, which do not allow the tribe, community to survive.
In modern reality this word has obtained more general, than just ordinary meaning, we understand its meaning as a category of cultural, moral, philosophic and even of political levels. We are too small-numbered to survive following to our centuries-old but already out of date unwritten laws.
Renewal is needed, re-comprehension of our existence. For mankind becoming aware of value of born by nature cultures of indigenous folks it is necessary to learn more, hoping for understanding and support of new civilization and while preserving ancient and unique knowledge of our peoples.
Namely therefore we
Today our "argish" is not just familiarization with juridical norms, fixed in the Constitution, Russian legislation, international legal documents, but also realization of our deserved place on the Planet Earth as guardians of the Mother-Nature! We attempt to convince society that "…every people inhabiting our country are given by God. As air, land and skies. And loss of each even of small-numbered - irreplaceable loss for all mankind!"
We are citizens of Russia first of all and we support our President V.V. Putin: "We all together want our country - Russia to be a powerful, great and mighty nation". We do not want great upheavals; we need strong by spirit and mind Russia, so by right of a Human one can be proud of being namely its citizen!
Very few know that on the territory of our krai (region) the Selkups, one of the small-numbered northern people live. In the Turukhansk raion (district) it is one of the northern nations which destiny raises much concern about. Mostly they inhabit the village of Farkovo. They call themselves as "forest people". Especially those who permanently live in the forests. They come to the village very rarely only to have new provisions. Therefore they more than others have problems with applying for pension in required time, subsidy for children and etc. Officially majority of them are unemployed. But unemployment welfare they get for different reasons. Production they have (fish, fur, meat of reindeer and elk) usually take place in autumn - winter period of year. In autumn they earn for life gathering different wild berries and of course fishing. Spring and summer are not lucky time for earning any money. This is a problem for all "forest people"!
What could be ways of possible solution
of jobless in summer time?
Who should about solution of these problems
first of all?
It is also expected that people themselves should not sit and wait when their families are in need. One can create ideas and not undertake any efforts to make it come true. Only with help of joint work of authorities and ordinary man we can develop and make things come implemented in practice. Initiators of ideas have to refer to raion for receiving help for their social and economic plans of development of the village and even to krai: to deputies, representatives of legislative power in the village, raion, krai and officials of executive power. But one has to accumulate great patience for breaking through and making ideas come to life.
"Forest people" have specific problems. Not ordinary as all people have in the village, for instance, payments for communal services (e.g. electricity). We suppose they should not pay for electricity if they live all wintertime in taiga. But payment bills for the whole period come to their families. The biggest problem of "forest people" is that when they return to the village they have no houses to stay on. Some of them possess half destroyed houses where impossible to live even in summer time. But they have children; usually these are many children families. In such conditions could they be brought physically and morally healthy and become worthy citizens? It is first of all matter of care of local authorities. The problems can be solved by jobless hunters and fishermen in spring and autumn times. Normal conditions have to be created for them to construct houses (reasonable and in time paid salaries, construction materials, and attention of authorities).
In Farkovo there are few families which children are handicapped; it is a big problem not only for indigenous communities but for all. Not everybody of the Turukansk raion knows that there is a specialized program for support of the handicapped children. We can advise them to pay attention to family support programs, also for handicapped children. Whether seven years old Raya Kusamina will have a wheeled chair or not depends on wish of both - parents and raion department for social protection of population. Our interns have prepared an article about programs of social support for such children under the title of the region level program. All our recommendations articles will be published through raion's Association of indigenous small-numbered people of the North (President O.L. Sinnikova) in "Word of Peoples of the North" (Light Tower of the North). Destiny of Polina Besrukikh also depends on her mother, parents and people responsible for social programs in our raion.
One more problem - a pain of all national
villages - alcohol! From our point of view vodka business is a real terrorism
against indigenous peoples of the North! If people were busy with jobs,
paid attention of chairman of selsoviet, deputies of all levels this problem
would be decreased in 50%. Support of the Orthodox Church would be also
relevant here. Very possibly. Because there are a lot of outside origin
religious sects over here (in villages of Bor and Kellog). Indigenous
communities' cultures severely hurt. Russia has always been of the Orthodox
Christian belief, on which the spirit of Russian peoples is based, no
matter of what ethnic background they are!
"… Why they forbid me to hunt, fish,
For my long life I have often listened to such talks of my counterparts on the river Elogui, when with sticks we were fishing small eels, or gathered cranberries in taiga by autumns. I do not know why but a wise Russian fairytale about wooden and ice houses of a hare and a fox comes always to my mind. I did not know how to answer not to hurt them and to help them somehow to learn answers to all complains. To my four daughters I could answer saying that they have to study, study and study. Now I give a piece of advice to you also: learn to protect yourselves, your rights to a life on lands of your ancestors.
Life has never been without obstacles. It is a dark forest. As in a forest you can easily be lost, and forget which trail to go. In childhood the deer's trails saved us: they always lead to chums. Now we have nor chums neither deer… People of the Keto, just fewer of them left. Those who speak in our language about a hundred left. Your chum - it is knowledge! Speak about us to people wishing by heart to learn and take culture of our peoples, who made severe region of earth - North their homes.
Today one may and have to learn to live again, but much was lost. The past with all its joy and unhappiness has gone anyway. Sometimes it comes back as a sorrow, disobedience, but sometimes as intention not to solve problems wisely and peacefully. But one should be able to forgive. But our society also needs to learn really civilized relations, where respect to the elder generations and care for children will find their place. Nobody will do our work for us.
Remember: useful information - not secret, but it makes a life of a man more interesting, jolly and fuller. A man without it is like a boat on land. Knowledge is necessary to be a worthy partner in conversations with life. Teach yourselves to live, share your knowledge with counterparts in everyday life, and keep traditions and customs of your peoples on earth which is always called by us Home. Keep your human dignity! Do not forget to thank you each other, remember, that nether less I HAVE REMAINED A MAN, who lives in good relations with people of different believes and nationalities. To be sure of this, a simple Keto prayer will help you:
Thank you, Mother Nature, for giving children
Klavdia Kharlampievna Baldina,
To question about sustainable development and traditional land use of the Turukhansk North because interns of the first group has come namely from there.
Turukhansk district - area of extreme North, which occupies exclusive position in administrative-territorial system of the Krasnoyarsk krai: this is its most northern district. District center, village of Turukhansk is located from Krasnoyarsk in distance of 1100 ế and 1440 ế along river of Enisei. 28 its settlements in average are in distance of 400 ế from Turukhansk and 7 of them are located on the inflows of Enisei.
General length of water and land roads to settlements makes 1860 ế, along side small rivers - 1060 ế. Main rivers are inflows of Enisei: Podkamennaya Tunguska, Elogui, Nizhnaya Tunguska, Turuhan, Kureika. Duration of navigation along Enisei on the district territory is about 4 months, along inflows - from 7 to 20 days because of sand banks. There are no railway or motor roads. Sveltogorsk, a village of town type and administratively subordinated to it Igarka village are located in the area of the district.
Total area of the district is 214 thousand square ế. Not big population (about 13 thousand people) without Svetlogorsk determinates low density of population on 1 sq. km. - 0,057man. For 28 settlements this makes an urgent problem for transport accessibility to provide even minimal conditions of vital activities of the district population. Transportation is fulfilled by small aviation (helicopters available for 9 to 12 months) and water transportation (4 months per year). Travel from village of Kellog to district center Turukhansk makes 1500 rubles, from Turukhansk to Krasnoyarsk - 3000 rubles. Total amount for two way travel makes up 9000 rubles. Average local salary is 3000 rubles.
In 15 from 28 settlements representatives of indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North: the Ketos (816), the Selkoops (369) and the Evenkis (188), totally 1373 people, live (11.08% from the district population). The Evenkis inhabit the most discomfort zone of northern part of the district, the Ketos and the Selkoops live in extremely discomfort zone of middle and southern parts of the district (border in latitude 64 North). These are their natural habitat.
Developing of the district started at the beginning of XVII century because of its richest biological resources, due to that many-centuries history and culture of aborigine people of the district has been built. Today they have returned to their natural economies: fishery, fur-trade, berry gathering and deer-raising, which has been preserved after 75-year Soviet period by the Evenki people only.
These are numbers which can tell about state of health of the indigenous of the location. Average lifetime makes 61 ages; aborigines' life expectancy is - 39 years, whose only 6,3% representatives live till pension time. Main reason is very low social level of life and alcohol dependence, which causes great number of accidents and suicides. Diseases of respiration organs, blood circulation and malignant neoplasm have increased recently.
Capable to work aborigines make 51%, which
only 13% are officially registered as unemployed. But factually the unemployed
are 3-4 times more, as majority of people of remote settlements being
jobless have never been registered officially as unemployed.
|SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND LANDUSE||
Article "Indigenous Issue", Moscow News, Krasnoyarsk region ¹43 dated 4-10.11.2003
Aborigines of the Krasnoyarsk North may gain right of property to lands where they hunt, fish and breed deer. In spite of that Gosduma (Russian Parliament) does not want to give fast areas to the indigenous communities of the Russian North, Zaksobranie (Regional Legislative Council) of the Krasnoyarsk krai intends to assign territories of traditional landuse to tribal communities.
Commission on the North and indigenous small-numbered people has introduced for the first reading a draft law "On lands of traditional landuse of the indigenous small-numbered people of the North of the Krasnoyarsk krai". If it is passed, authorities will recommend bodies of self-governance to define order of establishing borders of such territories.
At the same time representatives of aborigines proposed to insert amendment: "Industrial development of territories belonging to the indigenous people, possible from their agreement" to another law "On basis of right guarantees of the indigenous small-numbered people of the North of the Krasnoyarsk krai". However last summer deputies rejected it.
In reality such questions are solved without background glance at imperfect legislation. It is not necessary for and in favor of industry which is conquering the North. For instance, recently American oil industry workers have left the Enisei region. On the Sym River the American flag was raised already 10 years ago. Founded in Texas, Symskaya Exploration, Inc. obtained a license for 25 years, but here the American pathfinders came across the same civilized problems as their forefathers' while conquering prairies. Not standing this, in May the Americans dismissed this license.
At the same time the indigenous residents of Sym village (few tens of them) opposed a proposal of the region administration on establishing a Nature Parks with area of 2.5 million hectors. Opinion of the Evenki and the Keto traditionally making a living in these lands was supported by regional deputies promising to bring this case till Genprokuratura (Office of Public Procurator) if aborigines will be oppressed.
Legal courtliness of regional parliaments may lead to the fact that e.g. rights of the Evenkis in the Krasnoyarsk region will differ greatly from rights of the Evenkis in the Evenkiyskiy autonomous okrug (district). There, according to officials of the Association of the indigenous small-numbered people of the North, Siberia and Far East, the notion "a subject of traditional landuse" is interpreted so loosely that for different juridical organizations opportunities appear to obtain lands as property where aborigines have lived and hunted for many centuries. According to words of Genadiy Druzhinin, a deputy of Gosduma from Evenkia, officials may refuse even indigenous communities to give a license for hunting.
Comments of "Argish" center interns on the article
Firstly, we have never seen such a draft
Much time is needed (especially very small
numbered people have no time whose unique culture is on edge of disappearance),
to convince society that a way of life of our ancestors is a special kind
of human activity, which
Smirnova Vera, Keto
OF PEOPLE OF THE NORTH
¹ 5 - 2005
TABLE OF CONTENTS
It is possible to live
in taiga. But you should not only trust it. It can be insidious and spiteful.
It doesn't change its laws: a strong animal gets food with power, a cunning
one with keenness of wit, and a careful one doesn't get into paws of the
strong. Everybody living in taiga has his own wit and experience. But
for all of them it is their native place. Because here is their home,
their territory. A man should always remember: he came on their native
lands. Taiga can be burned, the forest can be cut down, but you cannot
He who lives embracing the nature is kinder in soul and better.
They all were called Siberians
|THE MOOD OF THE ISSUE||
Siberia Is Reviving?
Our Centre is the knowledge on our rights
The common conclusion of the interns which can be useful for the readers
International Labour Organization
(ILO) - one of the UN organizations
Ratify the ILO Convention 169!
Measures of social support established by the law of Krasnoyarsk Territory
2. Disabled members of veteral worker's
family, living together with him, under his maintenance or receiving from
him help, which is constant and the main source of means of existence
3. Veteran workers of the region
(60 year-old men and older with seniority not less than 40 years; 55 year-old
women and older with seniority not less than 35 years).
4. People working and residing in
villages, workers' villages for whom the following institutions are the
main place of work. Managers, psychologists, sociologists, social workers,
pedagogues, doctors, pharmacists, middle medical and pharmaceutical workers
of regional state and municipal public health service institutions, educational
and social service institutions. Managers and specialists of regional
state and municipal institutions of culture and art.
5. A consort not remarried, children
under 18, children under 23 studying full-time, children after 18, who
became disabled before 18, of servicemen, rank-of-file and commanding
staff people of internal affairs authorities and state security authorities,
employees of criminal executive system of the Ministry of Justice of the
Russian Federation, perished (died) on duty in armed conflict in the Chechnia
Republic or in counter-terrorist operations on the territory of North-Caucasus
Region since August 1999.
6. Parents living alone, couples
of parents living separetly of servicemen, rank-of-file and commanding
staff people of internal affairs authorities and state security authorities,
perished on duty in time of peace, after appointing them two pensions
in accordance with legislation.
7. Parents living alone, couples
of parents living separetly of servicemen perished on service in time
of peace or died of war injury after discharge from service, except the
cases when the death came as the result of their illegal actions, after
appointing them two pensions in accordance with legislation.
8. Citizens whose total income of
the family per man does not exceed five times repeated average amount
per man of living wage of a family, calculated as arithmetical mean of
the sum of living wages of members of the family, basing on their belonging
to a certain social demographic group of corresponding climatical zone.
9. One of the parents (adopters,
guardians) in families with income per head not more than the living wage
established in the Krasnoyarsk Territory per head, considering living
in climatical zones.
"Bird-cherry trees are already snowing
on the head with their blossom,
News of "The Northern Lights": hopes, meetings, events, facts
1. During NPIR project implementation, internment on the programme "Human Rights. Indigenous Peoples' Rights" for the period of 2004, March-April 2005 involved 36 representatives of Evenks, Selkups and Ketos from Turukhansk Region, where the main part of indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk Territory lives. The most positive point of the project was interaction of public organizations of indigenous peoples of the region (communities, Association of Indigenous Peoples of Siberia, "Argish" Centre) with local self-government institutions of the furtherst northern territory of Krasnoyarsk Territory, presented by Head of the region Simona Yurchenko and the administration staff as her team. A number of meetings with the interns of the centre were oriented on discussing social-economical and cultural development of the northern people. Spiritual revival, joint protection of rights of this group of population of Russia - are the main lines of the regional programme acting more than 5 years. Search and support of indigenous peoples' initiatives, directed to realization of the principle "unity in diversity", to cultivating tolerance and development of international contacts, to establishing local communities through active public contacts, to strengthening the political system and local self-government - this is not the complete list of joint activities forms. The main concern is for a family, children, youth.
CHILDREN - THIS IS OUR WEALTH
Uneasy time has come. Siberian people have
never been spoilt by wealth of civilization, but moral values have always
been the main for them. Today spiritual culture has made one step back
in front of desire of material wealth: a car and high wages, a flat in
the city... All these thing are needed. To build houses, churches is necessary
to improve living conditions of a simple man, of Russians.
Five million homeless children for only
10 years of reforms - this is our future, this is our peaceful and respected
old age. Indifference of adults pushes our children to where they cannot
get out themselves: unemployment, dipsomania, drugs, prostitution... Broken
children's lives, crippled souls - is this our future?
4. The pride of the region is the
Winter Spartakiada of schoolchildren of Turukhansk Region. On 30 March
at 10 o'clock on the stadium "Yunost" we took part in the ceremony
of opening the 25th Winter Spartakiada of children and youth of the region.
We watched the solemnity of the action, the visible pride of children
for the mission they are carrying out not for the first year. The sports
winter week is a traditional holiday for the health of all the region.
As the head of Regional Sports Committee said Vladimir Davinduk, the programme
of competitions is very wide. There are running with a stick, skiing races,
axe throwing, jumping over sledge. The holiday will be living for four
days and, as organizers suppose, will be important for everybody: sportsmen
and fans. On the opening of Spartakiada there were guests - deputies of
the region. With the same solemnity the close will be held in the regional
House of Culture on 2 April at 17.30.
5. For all the period of study on
the programme our tribesmen from "Oldomon" community have been
coming to the course. The most often guest was its head German Davinduk.
Many times we met with the president of the regional Association, the
former intern of a similar centre in Moscow "Lauravetlan" Oksana
Sinnikova. On one of the meetings on 25 March she told us what she had
achieved for the years after her study at the Centre, about her work at
a public organization, she introduced us federal and regional programmes
of social economical development of our peoples. This year our association
will be 10 years old, and Oksana Leonidovna invited us at the Coordination
CounÓil of the Association, agenda of which includes the issue of preparation
to the jubilee of the organization; some delegates of V Congress of Federal
Association in Moscow in the middle of April will be present. At the Coordination
Council of the Association on 26 March there were really delegates: from
Ketos - chairman assistant of the Village Council Vyacheslav Irikov, from
Evenks - Antonida Davinduk. We spoke about our wish to attract youth to
such interesting activities. In the future foundation of a youth centre
of the Association is planned. You can only win from cooperation.
Turukhansk Association of Indigenous Peoples is 10!
Information is prepared
by A. Kusamina, basing on the results of the meeting
Let's take care of our tribesmen
To the president of Association
P.S. Some historical references, statistics
and up-to-date facts to clarify this application. The total balance of
the deer herd - proportion of offspring, slaughter and lost of deer -
is impossible to calculate because there is no regular registering of
deer and traditional secret of information about exact number of deer
among any deer-breeding people: it is not accustomed to speak loudly about
your wealth. In the past there were even battles because of deer, and
now they are afraid of "evil eye". As deer-breeders say, they
succeeded to save deer and total number of deer in the region of Sovrechka
really increased for last years.
My Motherland - Sovrechka
For the young - to keep fathers' traditions
Historical reference on deer-breeding of Ketos and Selkups
Ketos began deer-breeding late. At present this Yenisei people, who have saved their culture in comparison with many disappeared peoples (Assans, Pumpokoltses, Yugs, etc.), often hear the reproach: why have not they saved and are not engaged in deer-breeding? We feel necessary to give a historical reference on it. We don't want to offend another not deer-breeding people - Selkups.
All these are taiga peoples, and before Russians came most of them had not had deer. Afterwards deer-breeding was developed by Ketos, who lived along the left plain bank of Yenisei (along the Dubches, the Yeloguy, the Surgutikha, the Pakulikha) and in the basin of the Kureika. Only Podkamennotungus Ketos did not keep deer.
Deer were used for transport purposes exclusively
and helped travelling during hunting, main object of which was a squirrel.
As a rule, they were harnessed into sledges. Usually families owned not
more than 10-20 deer, which were hardly enough for wandering in winter
trade. Herds of 60 heads were exceptions. Before collectivisation the
biggest herd of 250 heads was owned by Kureika Ketos the Serkovs, in this
herd animals of four brothers were united [Alekseyenko, 1967].
As Alekseyenko noted , Ketos' practice of summer free pasture led to big loss. 90% of year loss was in summer period. As by the moment of calving deer were usually free, mortality of newborn calves was very high. To save offspring some families detained the herd near the camp till the end of calving and then kept newborn calves and their mothers tethered. But such actions were exceptions, usually Ketos knew about loss in their herd only in autumn, when they gathered deer for hunting.
During inspection of hunting-trade economy of Turukhansk Region in1973-1976 [Klokov, 1978] some groups of Ketos were still using deer teams for hunting (see map). On the North of the region Ketos from Serkovo village and from the Manduiskoye Lake were hunting with deer in the basin of the Kureika river and its tributary the Degen river. Some small amount of transport deer was kept by Ketos from Baklanikha and Surgutikha villages in the basin of the Pakulikha river. Yelogui Ketos had two small herds of deer - one near Kellog, the other - on the Dynda Lake. It is significant that on the left bank of the Yenisei some Selkup's families living there participated in Keto's deer-breeding. By the present Keto's deer-breeding disappeared completely, but the questions of its reestablishment are being discussed.
Deer-breeding of Baikha Selkups, who lived on the territory of Turukhansk Region, was almost the same. Like Ketos, Selkups let their deer walk free in taiga in summer, and in winter they used them as transport for hunting. There were not many deer. By P. Ostrovskikh , in 1920-1930 few people had 10-12 deer, usually they kept 2-3. In 1970-s transport deer were still regularly used by Selkups for winter squirrel and polar fox hunting in the basin of the Verkhnaya Baikha and wild deer hunting north of Turukhansk Region (see map). On the rest of the territory hunters dispenced with them.
Public herd of Selkup deer belonged to North-Turukhansk
State Industrial Farm. In 1973 it consisted of 113 grown-up animals. In
winter riding deer for some small fee were given for rent to the hunters
on the staff of the farm, usually 4-6 heads per each hunter. Young deer
were left in the herd under a herdsman's supervision. The herd was kept
in the region of the Ladyga village, located on the bank of the river
with the same name, the Verkhnaya Baikha tributary. The structure of the
herd had a vivid transport orientation - 33% of neuter bucks.
Material is prepared by Vyacheslav Krasnopeyev
How to reduce to number of candidates for beggars?
Difficulties and problems of a "worthy living level" of men
I don't want to give details for Turukhansk
Region as a territory of Far North. It is far not like Altai, though the
Altai Republic is also Siberia.
Sincerely, Vyacheslav Krasnopeyev
|HISTORY AND CULTURE OF SIBERIA||
A look through the century
Today, addressing to you with the following
text, I respond to your requests: to know as much as possible of how our
ancestors lived and what they did, what they worried about and hoped for
in their life. I will be helped with essays of Vladimir Peredolsky, written
after his travels to the "country of Yenisei Ostyak people in 1894,
O. Sinnikova, intern of
the Indigenous Peoples Centre "Lauravetlan"-96
Turukhansk Region at the beginning of 20th century
Turukhansk Region at the beginning of 21st century
Material is prepared by
Spiritual heritage of Ketos is their language
Among indigenous peoples of
Yenisei North of Siberia there is one, with which a lot of scientific
problems connected. This people is Keto. Over two centuries they attract
attention of different scientists. But many questions of their historical
destiny, language and culture are still open, and they will be solved
by researchers of the new century. And it is possible, we - descendants
of this people - will be among them.
Prof. Dr. Heinrich Werner
Sceintific remark. The Keto language
is the last living language of the big Yenisei family, which also included
the Kott, Assan, Arints, Pumpokolts and other languages. They totally
disappeared in the middle of 19th century. Since that time two dialects
of the Keto language are known: Imbatian and Symian, though Symian is
now recognized as independent language of Yenisei family. In Imbatian
dialect, which is spoken by modern Ketos, linguists distinguish several
subgroups depending on the place of living: Yelogui, Surgutikha, Kureika,
Material is prepared by
What is the number of indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk Territory?
The number of indigenous peoples of the
North, Siberia of Krasnoyarsk Territory accordong to census of 1989 and